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I am pretty new here, and I am not acknowledged with the bicycle terminology in English, so this topic might be a duplicate. Sorry in advance.

So, when I put more pressure while pedaling, the chain over-jumps (some teeth of the gear ring are being missed). Upon observation I think the problem is in the front gear rings (they're 3), but I am not quite sure. When the chain is on higher gear (smaller gear ring) on the back ones - it jumps more that when I am on a lighter gear (bigger gear ring).

Any suggestions what can be the problem and how can I fix this ?

P.S. the teeth on the gear rings seem to be fine and not waster or smth.

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Yeah, the first suspicion is worn drive-train components -- any one or all of chain, rear cassette, front ring. But it could also be that the derailers are maladjusted or the chain is simply too long. These aren't terribly complicated things, but they require an experienced eye, so a visit to your local bike shop is in order. – Daniel R Hicks Jun 4 '13 at 15:23
You may also find this piece on Chain Maintenance from the excellent Sheldon Brown website helpful. Check out the Chain and Sprocket Wear section. – kristof Jun 4 '13 at 15:57
The "more pressure...chain over-jumps" makes me think not enough tension on the chain. Too long chain or weak rear derailleur. – Ken Hiatt Jun 4 '13 at 17:53

Your issue sounds like a worn chain/cassette. Take the bike to your LBS (Local Bike Shop) and have them look at it. You can also check yourself to see if the rear cassette teeth look like sharks teeth, that's generally a good indicator of wear. Here is another post that may help you.

Generally skipping teeth is a sign of a worn cassette/chain, but it could also be adjustment issues from the derailleurs.

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