Common sense says you're correct in your assumption of wide tires wearing more slowly. The middle of the tire will wear rapidly to take the crown off of the tire. Then, once the crown is flattened out and the wear shifts towards the sides of the tire, the wear slows down significantly. There are so many variables for tire wear it isn't funny. You have front versus rear wear patterns, weight of the rider, weight of the bicycle and any accessories mounted to the bike, and of course, the riding conditions like temperature and road surface.
And you also must take into consideration the quality of the tire itself, including the construction technique. Probably the most important factor for any tire would be the maintainence factor. Proper pressure and inspection should make any tire last longer. Back in "the day" when radial tires were available, they had much better tire wear, no matter what the width, than regular tires.
I have a 1985 Miyata LT1000 touring bike that came equiped with radial tires. I wish now I would have purchased a couple dozen of those tires! They're 700c x 32c. I have replaced the rear tire several times, but the front tire is still the original Made in Japan tire that now has in excess of 26,000 miles on it! It shows very little wear to this day. Not even sun damage like cracking is visible so far.
As with automobile tires, the wider the tire, the less pounds per square inch on the road surface, the slower the wear. That's why wide tires are no good on snow or icy roads. They have less traction on the surface.
The higher the air pressure you run in your tires, the more quickly they will wear out because there is less tire in contact with the road surface. The center of the tire will wear down to the carcass quicker. Once the carcass is exposed, the tread left at the sides doesn't matter.