The first and foremost measurement is effective toptube length. There are, of course, other deciding factors in how a bike fits, but effective toptube length plays the biggest factor in whether a bike is going to fit or not.
Bikes are still measured in terms of seattube length which made some sense when many bikes had the same toptube length regardless of size These days that measurement has virtually no meaning with the varying degrees of compact geometry that most manufacturers implement.
To answer your question, cyclocross bikes don't fit a size bigger than road bikes as a rule. Some folks like to run a size smaller for a cross bike, some a size bigger. Your safest bet is to go for approximately the same cockpit length that you've got on your road bike. If you ride a 58 that has a 58-ish toptube, chances are a 52 even with a 54-ish toptube is going to be too small.