For a daily city bike i want to combine some older Shimano Components.
Is it possible to combine a Shimano XT V-Brake Lever (BL-M739) with a Shimano 105 SLR Front brake or are there any things i have to pay attention to?
V-Brakes and calliper brakes operate with different lengths of cable being pulled.
V-Brake levers pull a lot more cable and in this set up, your lever throw will be too sort to be usable and have very little stopping power.
You can get adapters to go the other way, road levers with v-brakes, but I've never seen one go this way.
Your best bet would be to look for some flat bar levers for the calliper brakes you have. Almost any sold as a road lever should work.