Since your feet should hardly touch the ground when the saddle is at optimal height, what is the best approach to stopping at a stoplight and then quickly re-starting when riding in traffic.
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Since I exclusively ride cleated pedals, what I always do whenever I need to come to a full stop is to shift to a low enough gear (on flats I'd shift to 34/21 or 34/23 -- I have a 'compact', ie. 50/34 crank), unclip my left foot, brake, then as I come to a stop, I shift my body towards the top tube and stand over it with my left foot on the ground. Usually when I put my foot down the bike would still be moving very slowly, but friction between the cleat and tarmac and/or a touch of the brake would stop me immediately.
When I need to move again, I'd take the right crank arm to the 2 or 3 o'clock position, give the bike a forward push with my unclipped (left) foot while my clipped (right) foot simultaneously pedals. And as my right crank arm reaches the 6 o'clock position, I'd lift my left foot off the ground, move my butt from over the top tube to the saddle, clip my left foot back in, and continue riding.
These are the options I use depending on the circumstances:
If you can't time it so you don't actually get caught at the light, you pretty much just have to dismount. As Daniel R Hicks mentioned, you can use a curb if one's available, but that's not always the case. And on a personal note, my strong leg is my right leg and since I live in America, the curbs are on the right, which makes that method less appealing to me.
If you set your pedals properly, dismounting can actually help you accelerate more quickly when you get going. Set the pedal for your stronger leg a bit less than 45 degrees from vertical. This allows you to get a full stroke right off the bat. When the light turns green, all you have to do is stand up, which puts your full weight on the pedal, and you're off.
If you're riding a geared bike, it's also a good idea to shift into the appropriate gear before you actually come to a stop. It takes a bit of practice and familiarity with your bike to know what gear that is, but it comes pretty naturally over time.
Well, you can't get around losing some/most of your momentum at a red light but if you do it clever, you can play with the timing of the lights and decrease your speed in such a way, that you won't have to stop completely.
Good practice is also to not put the feet down but balance or trackstand. That way, you can keep your feet ready on the pedals.
You can position yourself a bit behind the stop line (if possible) and take off on mid-orange, so you're already going when you pass the line at green.
The accelerating is common technique and power workout.
And then: full thrust!