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I have a shimano dynamo hub on the front of my bike.

Does it need any special maintenance, or maybe it needs just a little synthetic grease once a year, like a normal front hub?

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up vote 4 down vote accepted

I have a Schmidt dynamo hub and it is "maintenance free". It uses sealed cartridge bearings so there is nothing to grease. The Shimano hub probably has a similar design?

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As best I can tell, this answer is wrong. At least some models of Shimano Dynamo hubs do have adjustable bearings. See the answers below. – dlu Aug 18 '15 at 15:46

The common Shimano Dynamo hubs don't actually use sealed cartridge bearings, see the DH-3N71 and DH-3D72 techdocs. Shimano dynohubs do use good seals, however, and should hopefully be maintenance-free for many thousands of miles.

Alistair Spence has a good exploded view of an Alfine DH-S500, which is very similar to the DH-3D71. He also links there to a disassembly guide PDF, the original of which can be seen (minus images) in the internet archive. The steps are basically the same as a standard front hub, with the caveat that it is important to be careful to avoid breaking the axle wire.

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The Shimano hub dynamo bearings on one side probably not so difficult and you can look at their drawing but on the other side it can be difficult. I haven't tried to open the other side but you can check this out:

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