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I got this bike secondhand, and so I don't know its history/what could have made it like that. And I mean they wobble while I'm holding them, not while I'm riding hands-free only. I've ridden a few bikes before, and they didn't have this wobble, so I don't think it's just a case of me not being strong enough to hold the handlebars straight.

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In what direction do they wobble? And when they wobble, does the front wheel move in any way? Do they wobble when the bike is stationary? What surface are you riding on? –  andy256 Aug 3 at 0:11
    
In what direction: When they wobble it makes the bike steer from left to right. Surface I was riding on: flat asphalt. I'm not sure what the answers to those other questions are. –  user13253 Aug 3 at 0:16
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If you hold the front end of the bike off the ground and spin the wheel, does it wobble or is it wavy as it spins? If it has front caliper brakes, does the rim touch the brakes as it spins? –  Gary.Ray Aug 3 at 0:46
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could be the headset –  PeteH Aug 3 at 10:24
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I would agree with @Gary.Ray and others who are on to wheels being out of true or loose headset. 1) If the OP can tell use about the model/condition of the bike we can rule out low-trail twitchiness (which I doubt). 2) I would also loosen the front wheel and make sure it is properly in the fork, then tighten it again. 3) To see if you have a headset problem get off the bike, squeeze the brakes and put some weight on the handlebars. Then move the handlebars forward and back and see if you feel/hear any clicks or clunks. And 4) do you have a loaded basket on the handlebars? –  Arbalest Aug 4 at 21:42

2 Answers 2

Different bikes can have different geometry. The head tube (the tube that continues the line of the front forks up to the handlebars) angle has a big effect on how the bike handles.

A steeper head tube makes the bike more "twitchy". You can feel like you're all over the place. A bike like this would be a more serious road bike, and if you are used to using flat handlebars then it probably has narrower handle bars (drop bars) also.

Both of those make it harder to control, until you get used to it.
So my advice is: keep trying, it will get easier.

For more reading see

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As PeteH commented, possibly a bad headset (could be worn headset or bearings need maintenance or replacement or the bearing may simply have been overtightened) As we ride, small corrections are constantly made, left, right,, left, right... When the handlebars/fork can't turn smoothly, these corrections become exaggerated - too much to the left, then too much to the right. Grasp the frame and lift the front wheel off the ground; very gently turn the handle bars all the way left and right. If you feel any roughness, catching, binding, etc., then you need to take a look at the bearings and headset.

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