Here's the skinny from my perspective.
Two factors: weight & aerodynamics
Carbon wheels are super lightweight which requires less power to spin.
Taller(Deep Profile) rims are more aerodynamic, so once moving they reduce wind resistance. Obviously, the taller the rim, the more material, therefore they are also heavier. Many folks talk about spin up, which means how quickly one is able to get the bike up to speed, when discussing Taller/Deep Profile wheels.
The ideal wheel is a balance between these two factors, but then again, it really boils down to your goal? Are you racing? If so, what is type of racing? Are you able to afford/maintain multiple sets of wheels?
This is a great question because it deals with the one area that many inexperienced riders underestimate. Wheels IMO, after the frameset, is the most important component of speed, weight and ride quality!
Please keep in mind this is only scratching the surface, but nonetheless I hope it helps!