Here are the ones I'm aware of:
Center Pull Cantilever
- Slightly better braking than side pull brakes.
- No recentering problem.
- Relatively rare
- Cheap to produce.
- Similar in braking power to center pull brakes.
- Relatively short service life before the resetting springs fail.
Cable Disk Brakes
- Second best stopping power available.
- Same kind of technology in automotive brakes, these work in wet or oily conditions.
- Require stronger rims, forks, and tires to be used.
- Relatively heavy.
Hydraulic Disk Brakes
- Stronger braking than cable disks.
- More complicated; more parts to break.
- More expensive than cabled disk brakes.
Have I missed any pro or con, or any brake types here?