When it breaks I fix it. I check wear on the chain (with a stretch gauge) every few months, and when I need to replace my rear cluster (as evidenced by poor shifting) it's time to repack the bearings. (This works out to about 5000 miles for me.)
A bike kept inside in a dry environment doesn't deteriorate, save for the tires [and maybe, I suppose, hydraulic brake fluid]. (Yes, the lube does deteriorate, but it would take 30 years or so for it to be far enough gone to worry about.) So no need for service every 3 months or some such -- it's purely based on mileage and wear-and-tear.
What can break??
Note that the things that can actually break on a bike are quite unpredictable. If chain, sprockets, and bearings are serviced regularly, tires (and brake pads) replaced when worn/cracked, cables and shifters given a spot of lube occasionally, and the cables examined for fraying and wear on the same occasions, there isn't much else you can do.
Spokes can break, but you don't know if that will be at 100 miles or 10K, so you basically have to wait for one or two to break to know that it's time to relace the wheel. Freehub pawls, shifter pawls and springs, derailer springs, etc generally last forever but can fail without warning (though usually a bad pawl will begin to slip before it goes out entirely). A broken chain is generally the result of a seriously worn drive train, serious maladjustment of the derailers, or really lousy shifting on the part of the cyclist. Fork/frame failures occur, but only on bikes that have been seriously abused. Blowouts, of course, can occur, but are largely insensitive to maintenance.
Probably the most likely failure (other than tire problems) is simply a bolt falling out somewhere. This is most common on racks and fenders, but can, eg, occur (in rare circumstances) on the bolt holding in a derailer idler wheel. So tightening bolts isn't a bad thing to do occasionally (if you know which ones to tighten and how tight).