I'm looking to purchase a bike for my commute to work and want a bike I can attach a back rack to. Looking around on-line it is very hard to figure out with which bikes this is possible. What is the term for the points that you connect a rack to? Or more generally, what should I search for that tells me a bike has these points?
I'd call them "rack mounts", which is what pake, surly, and all-city tend to use on their websites to describe them. Alternatively you could call them "braze ons for racks" or even "rack bosses".
From Sheldon Brown
They are called rack braze-ons, braze-on rack mounts, rack mounts, or pannier mounts.
Pretty much any aluminum frame or steel frame will have them, but they are easy to spot.
Look for a set of 4mm threaded hole near the brakes and near the frame's dropouts at the wheel axle.
The bolt that fits it is M5 x 0.8, but the hole measures 4mm because the threads on the bolt and the threads in the hole overlap.
An example image of a true braze-on:
And another of a machined "braze-on":