What are the periodic maintenance tasks (weekly, monthly, annual, every X miles) that anyone who relies on a bike for transportation (typically in urban/semi-urban environments) should be performing? Ideally stated in terms of miles travelled (where applicable).
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My bike service guys wrote a blog article along these lines. You may find it useful.
The article recommends four principals for basic bike care. These are
Mostly it depends on where and how far you commute, and road conditions (sandy, snow, salt etc etc).
At a minimum what I do is:
Daily: check tire air pressure.
Weekly: Check brake pad wear, tire wear, clean/wipe down entire bike
Monthly: Check chain tension, chainring/cogs for wear, lube chain, adjust brakes, oil all pivot points on derailleurs, brakes etc.
Annually: complete tear down, inspection and reassembly with synthetic grease on all bearings.
Being a big guy (~400lbs), I do a lot of damage to my bikes, so I check things more often and most of the time there isn't a problem. It's just better to double check. So as a result, here is my paranoid check schedule:
Every 3 rides:
Every 3 months:
Just to Add to the already good suggestions, If you bike at night,
This depends greatly on the type of bicycle: a Dutch type commuter bike requires very little maintenance. Simply checking tire pressure weekly/monthly and maybe lubricating the chain once a year will keep it in good conditions for years (with minimal repairs needed).
The reason is that very few sensitive parts are exposed to weather and outside conditions: completely covering chaincase, internal hub gear, hub dynamo, etc.
My feeling is that it does help a lot to store the bike inside or at least under a roof to better protect it from rusting.