New answers tagged parts
If it's the part I think you mean, Shimano label it as either the Bracket Axel Unit or the B-Axel depending on if it's the direct mount or standard mount variant.
Take your rear wheel off and visually inspect the cassette. Compare with this answer http://bicycles.stackexchange.com/a/21406/19705 and see which you have. Given bikepedia says 8 speed, its most likely to be a cassette. This is a freehub with a cassette. Note the ring of indentations just inside where it says 12T. That silver ring will unscrew ...
Nice shopping list. You'll need a new chain too - theres no saving putting your existing used chain onto brand new everything else. Personally I'd go for the long cage because it allows more difference between smallest and largest cog in the cassette. As an all-purpose rider I want a 12~28 or 12-30 cassette with a triple on the front. However as a tri ...
Another possibility is that you have stripped the bolt. I would douse it with oil or liquid wrench, stick a screwdriver in the gap to hopefully get the bolt to bite on the next thread. Go slow. Aluminum strips easily if overheated.
In terms of the rear derailleur, you will need to determine the capacity you need. To do that, add together the teeth in largest rear cluster and largest chainwheel to get the max teeth you have. Then add together the small rear cog and the smallest chainwheel to get the min teeth you have. Subtract the min from the max. That is your capacity needed. ...
The part is called brake cable hanger. If the problem is bending, avoid the sheet metal ones and get a forged aluminium one instead.
Remove the part altogether and replace it with a brake cable stop such as this one found at http://sheldonbrown.com/harris/images/brh27.jpg and insert a release such as this one found at http://bicyclehabitat.com/images/library/large/shimano_sm_cb90_1_13_z.jpg
Before you start, check very closely at the top and down tubes, about 1-2 inches behind the head tube welds. Your frame may be damaged in these spots, which is totally counter-intuitive. A steel bike will develop two rust rings here after a front-end collision. Use a magnifying glass or a jewellers loupe, and a bright light to look for any cracks or ...
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