I came upon this marvelous explanation of headset types.

However, this got me wondering. Isn't the role of the headset cups similar to that of the derauler hanged - to not waste the frame as soon as some wear-outable components ends it's life? How do frames with integrated headsets survive more than several years?

enter image description here from forums.mtbr.com

8 Answers 8


Here's an excerpt from Chris King about headset types:

What is an “Integrated” headset?

It is a bicycle frame, fork and bearing system designed to eliminate the humble headset cup. To integrate means to combine and hopefully to simplify. What has been “integrated” by the integrated headset? The bearings now rest inside the frame instead of inside pressed-in cups. All of this trouble and confusion is to remove two 12 gram headset cups from the front of your bicycle. True, an integrated headset can give the bike a nice, smooth looking front end, but the consequences of this change to your bicycle are significant.

Simply put, the performance and lifetime that you expect from your new bicycle will be reduced, most severely in aluminum mountain bikes. All bicycle frames that use integrated headsets will ultimately have substantial performance and reliability problems due to the inherent flaws in this design. The largest flaw is a bearing system that does not positively attach the bearing to the frame, leaving the bearing to “float” resulting in wear and impact damage to the frame.

As an additional complication, each manufacturer seems to be doing their own thing, with no real standardization to date. As a result, there are multiple bearing types and sizes (some of which have been discontinued with no replacement options) and the frame builders and bearing makers are not all working from the same drawings. Lack of standardization is a bad thing for everyone. It means that you may not be able to get replacement headset bearings for your bike, and you will need them.

So, to answer your question, yes, an integrated headset will eventually wear out, but that service time is dependent on riding type, style, number of hours, and quality/material of the frame.

You can read more about all three types: Integrated Headsets Explained

  • 13
    I'm not saying that I disagree, but it's probably worth noting that Chris King's business was built on traditional headsets. As a result, he's not exactly an impartial authority.
    – jimchristie
    Jun 25, 2014 at 23:06
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    This answer doesn't even try to address the question of whether the frame has to be discarded when the headset wears out.
    – Móż
    Jun 25, 2014 at 23:15
  • @Mσᶎ While not explicit the answer does indeed: "leaving the bearing to “float” resulting in wear and impact damage to the frame." There's not a hard and fast rule for when a frame is "too worn out" to be used anymore. It will depend on riding style, miles, maintenance, weather, etc.
    – Aaron
    Jun 26, 2014 at 13:00
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    Fully integrated headset is the antipattern when we are considering the technical side of things. It was designed and introduced only to reduce costs. Trek and other overgrown companies are reducing costs of production advertising lots of those "new" things as cutting edge and "better". Installing standard or semi integrated headset requires specialized tools, time and knowledge. Previously mentioned Trek doesn't know how to do those things. My Fuel Ex from 2008 had horribly installed standard headset (frame was not faced). If you want quality product buy frame with semi-integrated HS (Pivot).
    – goroncy
    Oct 13, 2014 at 12:45
  • @jimirirings That's a good point for historical purposes. I'm think you know more than me, but fundamental questions will ensue now. How many miles do you ride a week and how are the roads?
    – miles2know
    Jun 22, 2015 at 2:10

It is true that integrated headsets can wiggle a fraction of a millimeter when properly installed, more if they're not adjusted correctly. For most bikes, the wear caused by a properly adjusted integrated headset is going to be trivial. Something else on the frame will likely fail before the bore for the cartridge bearing gets wallowed out. Keep in mind that the head tube is not the bearing race for an integrated headset- you're just dropping a cartridge bearing down into the head tube and with cartridge bearings the races are part of the package.

if you run your headset out of adjustment continuously you may wear some slop into an integrated headset, but running a headset too loose can cause damage to any headtube regardless of the headset it accepts.

one final point for clarification, installation for an integrated headset into the headtube does not require any special tools. Installation of a standard or internal headset into the headtube will require a headset press as they both use cups that must be pressed into place. Once the cups are in place replacing the bearings requires nothing more than a hex wrench to remove your stem and top cap with. Installation of a crown race will require a special tool (if you want to do it right) if it is not a split type race- split races go on with no special tools. For removal of any of the above,if it took a special tool to go on, it will take a special tool to come off. Yes, you can use a screwdriver if you don't mind gnarling up your components.

  • I have a Schwinn Mesa lt frame that I'm sure uses an internal headset, and as far as I remember the cups come of just by hand. Does this contradict part of your answer or is my frame busted? (I've been riding it for 5+ years during wich I have installed two forks on it)
    – Jahaziel
    Jun 25, 2014 at 22:53

I'm pretty sure that the stress of changing worn-out press-fit cups does more damage to a head tube than the drop-in integrated variety.

Changing a set of cups on a frame is a high-stress, creaking, cracking job requiring dedicated tools with lots of mechanical advantage. If you don't use the right tools you need to use a hammering action, which is even worse for the frame!

Integrated headsets have never ruined a frame in all the years I've been working on them.

  • 1
    The necessity of specialized tools usage during disassembly does not mean that the semi integrated or standard headset design is worse. It just mean that you need specialized tools nothing more. And no. Changing a set of cups does not cause creaking, cracking or any other unpleasant noise. It is very simple and clean procedure. Next set of cups when installed correctly will work with no degradation of any kind compared to the previous setup.
    – goroncy
    Oct 13, 2014 at 12:41

TL;DR: Headset cups are more play-safe, but the IS headset is simpler to 'fit', and though the mass manufacturing industry is as 'unsophisticated' as ever, most consumers don't care much anyways. It'll wear out eventually, but nothing much to worry about unless you do a hundred barspins every day.

My long gibberish:

From a layman's and manufacturer's perspective, it is the perfect standard as the consumers simply slip the bearings in and out they go, while the manufacturers don't get much flak in their machining tolerances as the demographic goes closer to being "always updating and upgrading" than "bike designs lasting a lifetime".

From a stingy engineering perspective, it has a few issues:

  1. it's more sensitive to preload torque

  2. mass manufacturers relatively care less for proper machining and tolerance (compared to decent aftermarket suppliers), leading to

  3. non-standardized bearing choices, inconveniencing consumers, and

  4. improper/misaligned/unflush/insufficient interface with the bearing's outer races, leading to spinning/walking/floating even on correct torque settings

Engineering principles mainly walk along "tolerances as tight as possible relative to purpose" so in that aspect, IS headsets can be a bit sketchy to look at.

That said, it's not that it doesn't work, it's just that it's a system that reflects more consequences when executed improperly. Just like pressfit bottom brackets, it's actually nigh-perfect when manufactured and fitted in the same nigh-perfect level of standard.

Headset cups are either the actual races (old style) or made so bearings are press-fitted to them. The softer cups gall to supplement the imperfections, turning it into a practically solid interface.

On a final note though, headsets rarely go full 360 degrees (except probably on trick, DJ, or BMX bikes), so there's more leeway and less to worry about.


does no one in this thread understand that the mounting surfaces are beveled? once under proper torque from the steer tube top cap, they won't wiggle. This taper fit has been the norm for serviceable bearings in machinery for many, many years. When properly installed, this system adds life to a frameset, not shorten it.

  • 2
    If you could point out how a headset reaming facing tool bevels the surfaces I'd be impressed. They slide in as though they're cylindrical and the top cutters appear flat. I think your answer is wrong as well as verging on rude.
    – Móż
    Feb 14, 2016 at 20:17
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    I strongly recommend you read the tour found at bicycles.stackexchange.com/tour to learn how Stack Exchange is different to other forums. Here, its all about the question and the answer, and the "best" answers bubble to the top. Your answer appears to be a comment on another question, but you need a little more reputation to do that.
    – Criggie
    Feb 15, 2016 at 0:22

Integrated headsets use sealed cartridge bearings, so extra cups are superfluous as all of the moving parts are hidden away inside.


The image is wrong when it says you don't need special tools. There are special tools for both the installation and removal of integrated and internal headsets.

My point is that they are removable and replaceable. Having one wear out doesn't ruin the usefulness of a frame.

  • Do you agree with alex's answer? If no, please clarify further what tools and techniques are available for integrated headsets. I am curious to learn about headset maintenance.
    – Vorac
    Aug 15, 2013 at 8:17
  • It sounds like you're saying that the cups are removable as well as the bearings. If so, could you provide references? Everything I've seen seems to indicate otherwise.
    – jimchristie
    Jun 26, 2014 at 15:55

I can see why Chris King would talk down on integrated headsets about being a flawed design since they first came out into the BMX scene,what,12 or 13 years ago?His business was based on the old cup design!Integrated headsets not only eliminated 1 or 2 grams of weight,which is really nothing,but also simplified assembly by a long shot.Who would still want to hammer their cups into their headtube when they can just slip the bearings into their heat treated headtube,cut installation into a fraction of the time and just ride away?A sport like BMX is all about evolution in all its forms and disciplines and he knows this.If he also made bottom brackets,would he say the same about when they went in BMX from American to Euro to Spanish and Mid?Probably,I'm pretty sure.But for example,each change in BMX technology as far as bearing development and application has improved tenfold since its introduction into the sport,and in every step along the way.Every company in the industry just joined and snowballed the evolution of the sport and the technology used to improve on things that were once flawed designs.Hell,my first integrated headset was a FSA Impact and I got it in 2005.Believe it or not,I'm still riding the crap out of it.Yes,to this day.It's been on 7 frames,ridden hard on each and every one of em and still laughing at me as it asks for more after each session.So definitely I'll be the first to say that it's not that much of a flawed design.Sorry Mr King,but you were wrong with your speculations about integrated headsets being brought into the sport.I'll agree to disagree...

  • 3
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    Jul 25, 2015 at 16:36

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