First, to answer the question - Bikes with lower bottom brackets are more stable (and less nimble), and bikes with higher bottom brackets are less stable (and more nimble). Lower bottom bracket height can also cause pedal clearance issues, although this can be accommodated with changes to riding style. In the case of a flip-chip, the slightly lower BB height in the low position comes along with a slacker head angle (which also contributes to high speed stability), and a slackened seat angle (which could be good or bad, depending on one's bio-mechanics and preferences).
In my experience, the lower position tends to favor high speed riding, while the higher position will be better for slower, more precise riding.
Spherical cow reference aside, the accepted answer falls victim to a common misconception - it is not the bottom bracket drop which matters to riders, it is the overall bottom bracket height from the ground. Only the latter is affected by wheel and tyre choices.
There is nothing magical about the bottom bracket height relative to the axle height - a bike does not 'hang' from the axles, rather it balances upon the tires. The bottom bracket height of a frame is often specified as BB drop because that metric is fixed, while the the actual height of the bottom bracket above the ground varies with the tire size.
Larger wheels correspond with increased stability not because the BB ends up lower relative to the axle, but due to the increased gyroscopic forces of the wheels, and the (typically) longer wheelbase necessary to accommodate the larger wheels.
Example - the difference in the radius of a 27.5 and 29 wheel diameter is 19mm (though the total varies with tire selection). If BB height relative to axle height determined the stability, a designer wanting to keep similar handling characteristics between a 27.5 and a 29 bikes would perhaps design in a couple mm less BB drop on the 29 (to account for the different characteristics of the larger wheels), which would result in a nearly 19mm higher absolute BB height on the 29r. If absolute BB height matters, then the designer might subtract a few mm from the absolute height on the 29r (again, to account for the different characteristics of the larger wheels), which would result in an increase in the BB drop of nearly 19mm.
Look at what they do in practice:
| BB height (mm)| BB drop (mm)
Santa Cruz Highball (27.5)| 314 | 40
Santa Cruz Highball (29) | 314 | 56
Devinci Troy 27.5 | 344 or 350 | 12 or 6* (flip chip in low or high)
Devinci Troy 29 | 339.5 or 346 | 31 or 25*
*bb drops were not given on the Devinci site, so I calculated these assuming a 712 mm diameter for 27.5, and a 742 diameter for 29.
BB height barely changes between equivalent 27.5 and 29 designs, while BB drop changes a lot. BB drop matters to builders, BB height matters to riders.
(Source: I know this because I design bikes.)