This question and its answers list the names of bike parts and cycling concepts.

Some Rules

  • Make sure you only put one term per answer!
  • Try to include an image if applicable
  • Include sources that contain detailed information
  • Add a link to the index in this question using edit.

Also, I made this a community wiki, so that anyone will be able to edit it, and to stop rep-hoarding

There's a handy reference at the Park Tool Co. website, a bike repair map; it's a diagram of a bike with all the parts labeled, and is very handy! At the moment, the diagram is up at parktool.com/blog/repair-help. (They've changed the URL in the past, so this link may break.)

A road bike has the following parts (source):

enter image description here

A mountain bike has the following parts (source): enter image description here

Edit: This page is meant to identify what things or concepts are (as per this thread in meta). If you want to recommend an accessory or a specific product you've found handy, please use the accessories page.

  • 7
    One term per answer please - would be beneficial.
    – dotjoe
    Aug 26 '10 at 13:51
  • 1
    Is there a way to link to a specific answer, so that in future questions you can use one of these terms and link to it for reference?
    – Kevin
    Aug 26 '10 at 16:13
  • 2
    Kevin: Under the bulk of the answer, there is a 'Link' hyperlink, which will link to the answer (its right above comment) Aug 26 '10 at 17:12
  • 7
    @MarkIngram: useful things that aren't actually questions are what community wikis are for.
    – freiheit
    Sep 12 '10 at 17:47
  • 2
    This page could use some more love. Maybe if people keep linking to individual terms here, more people will know about this page. Jun 27 '11 at 2:39

90 Answers 90



A combined brake and shift lever. Also referred to as integrated shifters.




Frame or frameset

The frame is the skeleton of a bicycle. It's the part that all other parts are attached to. (Some parts, like the front wheel, are attached to other parts that are in turn attached to the frame.) A frame plus a fork are often called a frameset. The frameset's geometry determines the bike's handling characteristics.

Frames are usually made of steel, aluminum, carbon fiber, or titanium. Less common frame materials include bamboo, other types of wood, or magnesium alloy.

Aluminum mountain bicycle frame:


Parts of a bicycle frame:

enter image description here

(Image from wikipedia; credit and legalese)


Rack, aka Luggage Carrier

A rack is a frame attached to a bicycle to provide space for a pannier or other type of pack to be attached. Not all frames and forks are built with rack mounts. Racks can be mounted at the rear of a bicycle, for example on the touring bike below: enter image description here

Or front racks mount to the fork, as shown in a photo from Cyclingabout.com:

enter image description here



Disc Hub

Disc hubs are designed to mount disc rotors. Rotor mounts come in two varieties: 6-bolt ISO and Shimano's proprietary Centerlock spline. Converters exist to allow a Centerlock hub to accept a six-bolt disc rotor.

6-bolt ISO:

ISO disc hub

Shimano Centerlock: (Note, centerlock hubs ship with a rubber cover over the centerlock splines). Centerlock disc hub

You cannot mount a disc rotor on a non-disc hub. You can use a 6-bolt rotor with a groupset that is otherwise designed for centerlock rotors or vice versa.

  • Most Rohloff hubs are also "disk hubs", and come with a proprietary 4 hole mount. No adapter is possible, the reason they do this is because they need a bigger hole than the other mounts allow.
    – Móż
    Jan 14 '17 at 6:09

Chainstay Length

The chainstay length is measured from the center of the front chainring (centered on the bottom bracket spindle) to the center of the rear cog (centered on the rear axle). Longer chainstays stabilize the bike's handling. Touring and many gravel bikes have longer chainstays, whereas many racing bikes, especially on the track, have short ones.

The chainstay length is typically measured directly from point to point but might be measured horizontally (parallel to the ground) which will give a slightly shorter value. If possible, check the geometry chart to see how it is defined. Frames with horizontal or adjustable dropouts have variable chainstay length, unlike frames with vertical dropouts. In the former case, the manufacturer may state the chainstay length as measured to the middle of the adjustment range.

Chainstay Length

There are formulae for calculating chain length, based on chainstay length and cog sizes, which are used in online chain length calculator.



One of the central parts of a conventional bicycle wheel. Hubs are flanged metal tubes, somewhat similar in shape to spools of thread. Hubs contains bearings and an axle, and they are connected to the rims via spokes. The rear hub holds the freewheel or cassette.


The bearings in your hubs are wear items. This is discussed more in the bearing article, but cup and cone hubs require annual service. The cones may eventually wear out and can be replaced. Cartridge bearings usually do not require service, but they will eventually wear out. A competent bike store or a consumer with the right tools can pull them and replace them. The freehub body can often be obtained from the hub manufacturer as a replacement if it wears out. If the hub is OEM equipment on a complete bicycle, the bike store should be able to search for replacements in their inventory.

Good hubs can outlast a rim. Currently, many consumers buy complete wheels, but you can also buy separate hubs and ask someone to build you a wheel, or have a hub from a damaged wheel taken out and reused. If you damage or wear out a rim, consider if rebuilding on the same hub is more cost-effective than buying a whole new wheel.

For consumers, some key features are:

  1. Spacing and axle type

If you are getting a new wheel, you will need to make sure that these features match your current bike. Quick release road and MTB hubs had 130 and 135mm over-locknut diameter respectively. On thru axle hubs, road hubs wheels use a consistent spacing and mostly use 12mm diameter thru axles front and rear. MTB hubs likely use 15mm diameter thru axles, but you need to consider if the bike uses Boost spacing (148mm in the rear) or not (142mm, same as disc road bikes).

  1. Drivetrain

You need to match the rear hub's freehub body to your drivetrain. Shimano road hubs have mainly used the Hyperglide system, but the 12s Dura Ace hubs are transitioning to a different spline system (name not yet determined), and they use the Microspline system for MTBs. SRAM has shifted to the XD and XDR driver systems. Campagnolo has maintained its own freehub spline pattern, with an additional variant (called N3W) to accommodate the small cogs on its Ekar gravel groupset. Alternatively, you may have a freewheel hub, and you would thread a freewheel onto the hub.

If you switch drivetrains, replacement freehub bodies are usually available from the hub manufacturer.

  1. Disc or rim brake

Hubs designed for disc brakes will have their flanges spaced so as to accommodate the rotor, and they will have a mounting system. As to the latter, the two rotor mount standards are 6-bolt (mostly used on MTBs) and centerlock (used on drop bar bikes). Rim brake hubs cannot be used in disc brake systems, as there is nowhere to mount the rotor.

  1. Other features
  • Internally geared hubs contain all the gears inside the hub. They don't have freewheels, but they do have an external cog to attach a chain or belt drive. These typically have higher drivetrain friction than (properly maintained) derailleur-based systems, but they are much more resistant to contamination. They may use belt drives or chains for the transmission.
  • Track/fixed-gear hubs may have narrower spacing than other hubs. They will not have a cassette body, and they will accept a thread-on cog on one side of the hub.
  • Flip-flop hubs have a cog is mounted on either side of the wheel. According to legend, Tullio Campagnolo was inspired to develop the quick release skewer when he tried to flip a flip-flop hub secured by wingnuts in cold weather. This may not be strictly true, but Campagnolo was one of the first to put a high-quality quick release skewer into serial production.
  • Both front and rear hubs can accommodate electric motors. Users should be aware that they will change the bike's weight distribution and thus its handling. The batteries are mounted elsewhere on the bike. The crankset is an alternative area for mounting a motor (i.e. a mid drive e-bike).
  • What is the actual name of the cylinder on which cassette goes? Wikipedia states "splined shaft", here you use term just "splines". Mar 26 '19 at 18:31

Folding Bike

AKA Folder

A bike that's designed to fold down to a small package without disassembly. They usually have smaller wheels, and are designed to be taken on trains and buses. Many transit organizations that don't allow bikes during peak hours will allow folding bikes during these busy times. They also reduce storage space requirements, often useful in city apartments.

There are also bikes that do not fold, but are designed to be taken apart easily, with frame latches, quick-release latches, or hybrid folding/unlatching systems.

Folding bike, ready to ride

Folding bike, ready to ride

Folding bike, in folded position

Folding bike, in folded position


Tyre Saver

Small loop of wire attached so that it rubs continuously on the tyre as it rotates. This brushes off debris and reduces the number of punctures. These were popular mainly in the 1970's and 1980's, with the advent of lightweight puncture-resistant tyres they have almost disappeared.

tyre saver

  • Good work Mσᶎ. I think we also called them stone pickers or tire pickers, but my recent research only found stone picking machines to remove stones from farmland.
    – andy256
    Jun 10 '14 at 3:41

Internally-Geared Hub

A setup where the gearing mechanism is sealed in the rear wheel's hub, away from water, road salt, and other contaminants. Internally-geared hubs require much less in the way of cleaning than traditional drive-trains. These hubs are popular with commuters or other utility cyclists that will be ride in the snow and rain. They are also popular on folding bikes, as they are suited for bikes taken on crowded trains. When coupled with a single front chainring, IGH drivetrains permit the installation of a full chain guard, which most external gear systems don't allow. They can also shift when the bicycle is completely stopped, unlike derailleur drivetrains.

Internal hubs are slightly heavier than comparable external drive-trains. They also have greater drivetrain friction than a well-maintained external drivetrain.

They will typically require oil to lubricate the gears, which can be injected through a port.




Master link

Also known as:

  • Quick link
  • Breakable link
  • PowerLink™ (made by SRAM)
  • MissingLink (made by KMC)

A link inserted onto a chain so that the chain can be both assembled and "broken" (disassembled) without a chain tool. A set of pliers or a flathead screwdriver is usually sufficient to disassemble a chain with a master link.

Master link pliers are available to open a master link. Note that not all designs of master link are sold as suitable for re-use.

More information at Sheldon Brown's site.

enter image description here

Image from Wikipedia


Crank, aka chainset, crankset

We turn the pedals and cranks with our legs. Pedals screw into threads at the end of the crankarms. The cranks themselves are, in turn, attached to the bottom bracket. Gearing is controlled by the size of the front chainring(s).

Cranks have the following characteristics:

  • Length: Common commercial cranks are typically in lengths of 165mm to 180mm in 2.5mm increments. 170, 172.5, and 175mm are the most common lengths. Cranks are generally sized by rider height or leg length.
  • Chainrings: Cranks can accommodate 1 to 3 chainrings. The chainrings control the gearing available to the bicycle. 1x systems with a single front chainring (pronounced "one-by") are common on mountain bikes and gravel bikes. They frequently have teeth specially designed to retain the chain (e.g. narrow-wide chainring). Other technology, such as a clutch rear derailleur and possibly a chain guide, aids chain retention also. 2x systems are common on road bikes, and have pins and ramps to guide the chain to the large ring. Triple chainrings were once standard on MTBs. They may be more common on older touring bikes also. Front derailleurs are typically specific to triple or double chainrings.
  • Bolt circle diameter: determines what sizes of chainring can attach to the crankset.
  • Chainring attachment: Many current cranksets have 5 or 4 arms, and chainrings are bolted to the arms. Some cranksets are direct mount, where the chainring(s) are integrated with the arms, and the assembly fits to a (usually) splined interface around the arms.
  • Bottom bracket attachment or axle type: Cranksets may be designed to mate to a specific bottom bracket, in the case of square tapered, older Shimano Hollowtech, or ISIS cranksets. Alternatively, cranksets may be designed around a specific axle type. For example, Shimano, SRAM, and Campagnolo use 22 to 25mm diameter axles. Some third party cranksets have 30mm axles. These cranksets can fit any bottom bracket compatible with their axle diameter.
  • Chainline: the distance from the center of the bottom bracket to the center of the chainrings or chainring. Typically, road double cranksets have a 43.5mm chainline. MTB cranksets have 50mm. The advent of disc brakes on road and gravel bikes has led to some cranksets with 45mm chainlines. Front derailleurs are designed for optimal performance on a specific chain line. Mixing a road front derailleur with a 45mm chainline crankset may work, but it may not be optimal. Mixing a road derailleur with a 50mm chainline is very unlikely to work.
  • Miscellaneous: Cranks are typically made of aluminum. Less commonly, carbon fiber or titanium cranks exist. Aluminum cranksets are usually finished in silver or black, and higher end ones may have a polished finish. It is possible to paint a crankset, or to anodize aluminum or titanium cranksets for aesthetics. Some cranksets have power meters bonded to their arms, or they can accept chainring spiders with power meters integrated there. Cranksets can also connect to motors attached around the bottom bracket and/or to gearboxes mounted in the bottom bracket area.

  • Sheldon Brown has more information on cranks.

Crank arms



(a.k.a. seat bag, wedge bag, etc.) Small bag designed to be attached to the underside of a bicycle saddle, usually large enough to hold tools to change a flat tire.

The name "saddlebag" is often mistakenly applied to panniers which resemble saddlebags used on motorcycles or horse saddles.

  • also known as a wedge-bag/pack
    – mgb
    Oct 22 '10 at 3:52

Lawyer Lips/ Lawyer Tabs

Bicycle forks with quick-release wheel mechanisms are often equipped with these. The intent is to make it less likely that the wheel will accidentally release if the quick-release lever is used improperly.

lawyer lips (thanks to sk606 for the image)

In practice, they make it difficult to use the quick-release without unscrewing the skewer, making the quick-release harder to use. It is thought that these were added to bikes after a lawsuit, which explains the name's origin. Professional cyclists would frequently file these off, as they may need to change wheels quickly during a race.

Disc brakes impose asymmetric torque on the hub, and they may cause skewers to be ejected from dropouts. Lawyer lips help prevent this. However, bikes with disc brakes now overwhelmingly use thru-axles, which physically can't be ejected by torque.



The circular, U-shaped (in cross-section) part of a bicycle wheel that the tire and spokes are attached to. Rims attach to the hubs with spokes. Wheel-building is the process of attaching a hub to a rim with spokes, including bringing the spokes up to tension.

With rim brakes, the rim's braking surface will eventually wear out. The metal will become dangerously thin, and it may crack, as this image from Sheldon Brown's site shows. Some rims have a dimple in the sidewall as a wear indicator. When the wear indicator is no longer visible, replace the rim. Otherwise, check for concavity by holding a ruler to the rim. The photograph below was originally posted to the Bike Radar forum and it depicts a rim due for replacement. Wear due to braking is not an issue with disc brakes, as that is borne by the disc rotors.

enter image description here


  • If you ride in the wet with rim brakes, you should clean off your rims afterward, as the grit from the road will abrade your rims.
  • Rims can come out of true, i.e. they will wobble side to side or up and down (the latter is sometimes called being out of round). They can be trued by adjusting the spoke nipples. Tightening a nipple increases the spoke's tension, which pulls the affected rim segment in the direction of the spoke. Wheels, especially mass produced ones, do not always come true from the factory. You can adjust these at home with a spoke wrench. Normally this benefits from a proper truing stand, but in a pinch you can use the frame and/or your brake pads as a makeshift stand.
  • If an aluminum rim gets bent in a crash, it can often be straightened. This is less necessary on disc brake wheels that are not being set up tubeless.
  • In the worst case, if you must replace a rim entirely, consider if reusing the hub is more economical than buying a new wheel. If the damaged wheel does not use proprietary spokes or rim drilling patterns, you are not limited to replacement rims from the original manufacturer, making sure to match the number of holes in the old rim to the new one. Old spokes are generally not recommended to be reused, and a different rim will require different length spokes anyway. A bike store can help you determine the spoke lengths that are needed. Some examples of rim manufacturers with a wide range of price points are DT Swiss, Velocity, and Kinlin, although there are numerous.


Buyers comparing rims or complete wheels (often called wheelsets) may be interested in the following characteristics.

  • Material: Most rims are aluminum. Carbon fiber is lighter for a rim of similar depth, and aerodynamic rims are typically only made in carbon fiber. Carbon rims are more expensive, however. Older rims were made of wood or steel.
  • Holes: Fewer spokes means slightly more aerodynamic wheels, although the differences are small. Rims and wheels for performance road bikes may be available in 20, 24, 28, or 32 spokes, with 20 spokes typically only being available for front rim brake wheels. Rims for tandem road bikes tend to have more spokes.
  • Tire type: High-performance clincher rims at the time of writing can usually fit tubed or tubeless clincher tires. Older clincher rims may not accept tubeless tires. Alternatively, rims can fit tubular tires, which are glued to the rim bed. Tubular tires do not fit on clincher rims, and vice versa. Tubulars are extensively used in professional road racing, and they are typically safer to run if punctured than clinchers, but you have to be able to prepare and glue the tires (or pay someone to do so).
  • Tire widths: You can mostly mount whatever width of tire you want on the rim. This discussion has more information on what width of tires are compatible with rims. However, the frame's tire clearance is more likely to be the limiting factor than the rim. Some aerodynamic wheels will specify what tire widths are optimal to maximize aerodynamics. Some rims may explicitly state a minimum width. Check the manufacturer website for details.

enter image description here

Aluminum rims are extruded as a bar, then rolled into a rim. The ends of the bar are pinned together, held together by a sleeve, or welded. Pinned rims are generally the cheapest. Carbon rims are made in one piece in a mold.

Clincher rims require tape on the rim bed to cover the holes that are used to insert spoke nipples. A few clincher rims may not have these holes, and the manufacturer will explicitly say if this is the case.



The spokes connect the hub of a wheel to its rim. Spokes are secured to the rim by a spoke nipple. They insert into the hub at its flanges. Spoke count is the number of spokes in a wheel, and a higher spoke count usually means a stronger wheel that can handle more weight and abuse.

Spoke tension (the force with which the spokes are tightened) can be adjusted individually. This is part of the process of truing a wheel, ensuring that tension is equally distributed in the wheel and that the rim is true, or straight. This is particularly important with bikes that have tight tolerances, but wheels that are trued are a benefit to any bike.

Almost all spokes are made of steel. In performance bikes, spokes are sometimes bladed or ovalized, which reduces the wheel's air resistance slightly. Less commonly, spokes can be made from titanium or carbon fiber.


Cage/Bottle Cage/Bottle Holder

Water bottle cages hold water bottles on a bike frame. They can be made of steel, aluminum, carbon, or titanium. Most cages attach to the frame via preinstalled threaded holes that are usually called bosses or mounts.

Most modern frames have at least two bottle cage mounts, one on the seat tube and one on the down tube. Some gravel bikes have a third mount on the underside of the down tube. Some full suspension mountain bikes may have only one mount, as the suspension system can take up some room in the bike's main triangle. Some dedicated cyclocross racing bikes may lack cage mounts entirely, as cyclocross races are short and one may need to shoulder the bicycle during a race.

On frames without mounts, bottle cage adapters might be able to strap around the tube. Alternatively, you may be able to drill a hole into the frame and put in a threaded insert called a riv nut, although this will void your warranty and it will create a stress riser. This raises the risk of later failure. It may not be an issue with relatively thick steel tubing, however.

A couple examples of cages are shown:

Carbon Fibre Aluminum

For time trials and triathlons, there are also cage adapters that attach to the seat and provide mounting points for extra water bottle cages and spare tubes/inflators. A few new mounts place a water bottle between the extension of an aerobar set. (Image credit to Slowtwitch.com, a triathlon forum.)

Behind the seat Between the extensions

Hydration vests like those made by Camelbak are an option for bikes without any cage mounts or to carry additional water. These may be less comfortable in hot weather. Hydration bladders can also be carried in frame packs that are strapped to the top tube; these packs frequently have exit ports for the hoses. Last, stem bags will strap to the stem and handlebar, and these can carry a bottle also.

Some bikes, mainly gravel bikes, may have mounts on the outsides of the fork blades. These multipurpose mounts can fit standard bottle cages or larger cargo cages. Some gravel and triathlon bikes may have a pair of bosses on the top tube near the stem. These may have the spacing typical of water bottle cages, but they are used for bolt-on boxes (aka Bento boxes) that hold snacks and equipment.



The part that connects the cranks to the chain rings. You bolt the chainrings to the spider. In the past, you merely needed to find chainrings appropriate to your transmission (e.g. 8 speed, 9 speed) whose bolt circle diameter matched the spider. Many end 11 and 12 speed cranksets have moved to 4-arm asymmetric designs, so you will need OEM replacements or chainrings that are designed to mate with the specific crankset.

Historically, most spiders have had 5 legs, and the crank arms and the spider were forged or molded (for carbon cranks) as one piece. With some cranks, the spider may be constructed separately, or the crankset may use chainrings that incorporate a spider. In either case, the spider or chainring would mount to a splined interface at the base of the crankarm.

Image from trekstorecolumbus.com

  • 2
    Note: the study of spiders is Arachnology :-)
    – andy256
    Jul 15 '15 at 2:27
  • Two suggestions: make the entry logically consistent, and add the apparently missing words. If my name is to be attached to such bosh then it looks like it's time to delete my account.
    – andy256
    Nov 12 at 2:34

Mixte, Step-Through Frame

A mixte is a frame with 3 sets of stays instead of the usual two. Riders don't have to raise their legs far to get them over the top tube. These frames were an advantage to women wearing dresses. The image below is courtesy of Sheldon Brown's site.

enter image description here

The middle set of stays usually runs all the way to the head tube replacing the top tube, but on some mixte frames, the top tube is still a normal single tube. The traditional mixte has those axle-to-head stays straight, but there are also designs where they're bent to give an even lower standover height. They still retain the usual chain stays and seat stays. This design keeps the frame strong and doesn't require a longer seat post.

Wikipedia notes that the word mixte may come from the French word for mixed (as in mix of women's and men's styles) or unisex.


Welded Frame

A frame made by melting the tubes it is built from at the joins, typically with a similar metal added as filler. Mass produced aluminium and steel frames are almost all built this way as with modern machines it is very fast and cheap.

welded frame joints


Hose Clamp

A.K.A. Jubilee Clip

A ratcheting clamp often used to attach items to a bicycle fork or handlebars.

Flashlight attached to flat handlebars with a series of hose clamps.

Flashlight attached to handlebars with a series of hose clamps.

Jubilee Clip on Wikipedia

  • 1
    I see how the clamp goes around the torch, but how does it attach to the bars? Is there a second clamp, or does it twist around?
    – Hugo
    Jun 20 '11 at 8:59
  • 1
    There's a second clamp. Jun 20 '11 at 14:14
  • 9
    Hose clamps can cut into paint an even metal if they're tight enough. You can stick a strip of old inner tube under the clamp to prevent this (and to provide better grip).
    – naught101
    May 12 '12 at 3:03

Pump Peg

A pump peg is a small protrusion on a bike frame which is intended to facilitate the mounting of a "frame pump". Depending on the style of the frame, the peg may be positioned to allow the pump to fit on the underside of the top tube (of a standard diamond frame) or on the trailing side of the down tube. The peg is designed to mate with a corresponding hole in the end of the pump.

Some schemes have a peg at each end, while others reply on the other end of the pump being wedged into the V formed by the top tube and seat tube.

enter image description here

enter image description here



The padding in a pair of cycling shorts. Traditionally this was made using chamois leather but is now usually a synthetic material.

Chamois cream can be used to prevent chafing while riding. With chamois leather, it can dry out and stiffen, so chamois cream is applied to the chamois to keep it supple. Modern chamois creams, however, are designed to be applied to the rider themselves rather than the synthetic padding.

  • 6
    And chamois cream is better known as "butt butter". Jul 31 '11 at 18:24

Cable Pull

Many brakes and most derailleurs are actuated by pulling cables. Cable pull is how far the cable moves when the brake lever is pulled, or a shift lever is actuated.

For brakes, there are two main standards, short or conventional pull and long or V brake pull. Road bikes have tended to use short pull levers, although current Shimano road brakes operate on a slightly different cable pull than other brands. For mountain bikes, cable-actuated brakes have tended to use long pull. This means that mountain bike V-brakes will not work correctly with road levers and vice versa, although cable pull adapters may be available.

For indexed gears each groupset manufacturer will specify its own cable pull per shift (i.e. each click at the shifter), as well as how far the derailleur travels laterally per shift (i.e. the shift ratio or actuation ratio). Thus, shifters and derailleurs cannot generally be mixed across component manufacturers. Non-indexed (friction) shifters can generally be mixed, provided they have enough total cable pull.

cable pull diagram

  • Sorry about the edit war. Short pull brakes are not Shimano specific, friction shifters work if there's enough cable pull.
    – Móż
    Nov 5 '19 at 4:14


An expression used by cyclists to describe sudden fatigue or loss of energy while exercising. Also known as crashing, blowing up, or running out of steam/gas/fuel, or empty tank. The phenomenon applies to all endurance sports. In running, it may be called hitting the wall. Bonking is distinct from merely being tired due to lack of sleep or from a higher than normal training load. Subjectively, it can be quite unpleasant to bonk! There can be cognitive effects as well as physical ones.

Athletes bonk when they deplete their muscle glycogen stores. Glycogen is a form of glucose (a simple carbohydrate) that our bodies use as fuel. It is stored in the muscles and liver. This can be reversed by eating immediately, preferably foods high in easily-digestible sugars. Water alone will not reverse a bonk. Bonking can be prevented entirely by eating regularly during a race or training. Carbohydrate loading before an event may also make bonking less likely. During an event, you can consume carbohydrates in sports drinks, in pre-made energy chews, gels, or bars, or via real food.

  • You've edited out the point that this is an unpleasant result; an experience to be avoided wherever possible. Its more than simply being tired.
    – Criggie
    Oct 21 '19 at 18:38

Mountain Bike

Often abbreviated as MTB. A bike with sturdier wheels (usually 29" or 27.5") and wider tires - at least 2" wide - meant for riding off-road. They are also characterized by flat handlebars, which offer better control in very rough terrain than drop bars, and they almost always have suspension. Modern MTBs also have very different frame geometry than road bikes, tending towards relatively upright positions.

Mountain bikes commonly come with front suspension (hard tail) or both front and rear suspension (full suspension). (Rigid) MTBs without any suspension do exist, and they require much more careful choice of lines. In the past, soft tail MTBs had a small, low-travel suspension where the seatstays joined the frame.


Brazed Frame

see also lugged frame and welded frame

A method of joining frame parts together by melting brass into the joins between frame tubes. Frames can be fillet brazed or use lugs, which are extra, normally cast metal, parts that the frame tubes slot into before brazing. Lugs make building a strong frame easier, provided you have exactly the right lug for the situation. Fillet brazing offers more freedom but also more skill is required to produce a strong joint.

Shown is part of a fillet brazed steel frame, with the grey steel contrasting with the copper-coloured brass.

fillet brazed frame

The most common alternative method is welding, where the parent metal is melted and the same or a very similar metal is added as filler. Welding is generally stronger, faster and can be automated but brazing or soldering are sometimes preferred for DIY or aesthetic reasons.



In the context of bicycles dropouts are a kind of fork end, where the wheels are attached. Dropouts are employed on most bikes; on some mountain bikes the axles pass through holes at the end of the forks.

We often use dropout for any slot to hold the axle at the end of forks, but strictly speaking, a dropout is a fork end where the wheel can be removed from the frame without taking the chain off first. It's called a dropout because after loosening the quick release or nuts the wheel will drop out when the bike is lifted off the ground. It is much quicker and easier to remove wheels with the bike the right way up than when the bike is upside down.

The image below shows a Colnago horizontal dropout in a Surly frame; a typical example. It has adjustment screws and an integral derailleur hanger. Colnago horizontal dropout in a Surly frame

Front dropouts are vertical, and some rear dropouts are also vertical.

This image (CC BY-SA) from Wikipedia shows a fork end that is not a dropout. The wheel cannot be removed without removing the chain.

fork end


Lugged Frame

also lugs

A method of frame-building where at least the major joints consist of frame tubes inserted into castings (the lugs). For steel frames, lugs are hand-made by bending and filing rather than casting. Lugged frames are normally brazed, but can also be soldered (with lead or silver rather than brass) and occasionally glued (the Windcheetah trike used glued aluminium, for example). Historically this was very common, and many classic steel frames were built this way. Today with better welding technology it's rare, especially in mass produced bikes. Another alternative construction method for steel frames is fillet brazing.

classic Italian lugged frame

A minority of carbon frames are lugged, for example the Colnago C-64 (link from Cyclingweekly), or some custom carbon frames. Here, manufacturers bond carbon tubes to lugs.

enter image description here

Lugged construction with dissimilar materials is possible but more rare. For example, the Trek 2300 frame used carbon tubes bonded to aluminum lugs.

For carbon frames only, non-lugged frames are laid up piece by piece on a mandrel. The frame is then put in an oven at pressure to cure the resin. The front and back end of the bike are usually made separately. It is harder to customize monocoque frames due to the costs of building the molds. These may be called monocoque frames, but this is technically a misnomer unless the frame was built in one piece.


Thru Axles / Through Axles

These axles (TAs) secure your wheels to the frame and fork like quick release skewers. They originated on mountain bikes the forces generated by disc brakes can cause wheels to come out of the dropouts if the quick release is not secured properly. Thru axles insert into the dropout on one side, and they thread directly into inserts in the fork and frame on the other side. A frame and fork must be designed to use thru axles, and you can’t retrofit a quick release frame to take TAs.

from http://cdn.mos.bikeradar.imdserve.com/images/news/2014/02/14/1392416431992-ecxclyd8c6n5-700-80.jpg

A Through Axle frame has no dropouts - as this image shows there is a solid line of white metal from the fork all the way around From http://fcdn.mtbr.com/attachments/beginners-corner/789715d1365723144-need-help-new-bike-assembly-thru-axle-axle-pic.jpg

Contrast with Quick Release

The purported advantages of thru axles are:

  • Increased stiffness when turning
  • Thru axles enable more consistent placement of the wheel compared to dropouts and quick releases. Because disc brakes have tight tolerances, it is possible to insert the wheel such that the pads are rubbing on the disc rotor in a quick release setup.
  • Torque from braking can no longer eject the front wheel
  • Shock load is shared between both fork legs more evenly
  • Less rotational torsion on the fork leg with the brake caliper attached.
  • Thicker axles are harder to break - a 15mm axle has more strength than a 9mm QR.

Dropper Posts

Dropper posts are more commonly found on mountain bikes and on some gravel bikes. They allow the rider to quickly lower their saddle height. This is useful for very steep descents, where without a dropper post you may feel like you might go over the handlebars. You actuate the dropper using either a remote lever mounted on the bars or an actuator under the saddle (entry level models).

Cable-operated and hydraulic-operated designs exist and the cable or hose can be routed either internally or externally to the frame (as the frame allows). For mountain bikes, a small release lever is fitted to the handlebar and for gravel bikes, the left brifter can be used for the the dropper post (1x transmissions only). SRAM's AXS system can actuate a dropper post wirelessly, usually from the the left shift paddle.

dropper post
(source: evanscycles.com)

  • 1
    Maybe we don't need to list manufacturers in these wikis, we can't list them all and makes can go obsolete, we want the entries to be as enduring as possible
    – Swifty
    Sep 25 '19 at 10:31
  • Excellent! Want to add an entry for "seatpost" too? We don't have one listed. Could be worth adding why a MTB rider might want to lower their saddle, without stopping.
    – Criggie
    Sep 25 '19 at 10:32
  • I concur with Swifty, and I’ve deleted the manufacturer list. If others disagree, I can revert. I changed the entry on power meters to delete the list of manufacturers I added, but for historical interest i mentioned SRM, the first company to make a commercial power meter. If there’s interest in that sort of history here, I would vote for adding that.
    – Weiwen Ng
    Nov 16 at 16:38
  • Imagine rocking up two years late for an edit :D
    – Lucero79
    Nov 19 at 13:21

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