BB30 is Cannondale's (now open) standard for how the crankset fits into the frame.
Cannondale invented the BB30 bottom bracket in 2000 and debuted it at the Tour De France (I couldn't find any information about how they faired) in 2006 the BB30 became an free international standard allowing any cycle manufacturer to use it.
The BB30 International Standard provides the specifications for an oversized bottom bracket shell for a bike frame. This standard allows for Direct-fit, pressed-in bearings and a 30 mm spindle. The system saves weight by accepting a 30mm aluminum spindle and eliminating cups that would normally hold the bearings.
The claimed advantage of BB30 is an increase in stiffness and a 4% increase in drivetrain efficiency, achieved through an increase in size allowing larger diameter frame tubes. (according to Cannondale - I don't have the rep to comment!)
The Caad10 uses 110 BCD 5 arm chainring, if you put that into your favourite search engine there are a large selection of chainrings that will be compatible. You don't specifically need to replace them with the same size chainring, you can change them depending on your requirements.
The Shimano 105 chainrings should be a direct replacement, and are relatively inexpensive. Personally I wouldn't try to straighten an old chainring, as the metal would have stretched and you are unlikely to get it back to being entirely flat.