Answering as a road cyclist ...
For a ride of this duration (less than a day), before starting I take notice of the conditions, and decide what to wear, in how many layers.
I want to carry a spare layer to put on during stops, and in case of bad weather. Usually it'll be my lightweight wind and (so called) water proof jacket. Sometimes it's just a windproof vest.
I always start every ride carrying two full water bottles. I would expect to refill them somewhere on an all day ride. I have a mini pump clipped to the frame.
I always carry
My bike multitool. It has more tools than I need, but it's amazing how often I come across someone in need. (My brother asked me for a 5mm hex key once and I gave him the multitool. He said he only needed to tighten something, not rebuild the whole bike :-) Mine is 10 years old and is a BBB version of this Park Tool. I should also mention that I wrap the multitool in a plastic bag. It stops it from rattling, and a plastic bag can be placed between my cap and helmet if it gets really wet!
Puncture repair kit. (Note to self, replenish the used patches). Just a plain repair kit from my LBS. It had chalk, glue, patches, and a piece of emery paper. I lost the chalk but replaced everything else multiple times. This Park Tool Kit is similar.
Three plastic tire levers. One always seems to go boing off into the bush. Again, just generic plastic levers from my LBS.
Two spare tubes. On a bad day ...
One banana. For a big day, two bananas.
Except for the banana and wallet, the stuff I carry is all wrapped up and in my middle back jersey pocket. The banana and spare top is the left back pocket, the wallet in the right pocket.
If I have the rain jacket on and have to remove it, I'll roll it into a ball and stuff it the back left pocket. If I have to remove another layer, I'll plan a stop to roll the garment up into a small thin roll and put it the back right pocket. Most of my bike gear has full length zips; I can unzip them to get lots of ventilation before needing to take the thing off. Never had to take off more layers than that; some people suggest tying them around your waist, various bike parts ...