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I am looking into whether there are inner tubes that are fully flat proof. Do you know how much they would affect performance and comfort?

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    If you are asking because you are constantly getting flats: There are (almost) puncture proof tires like the Schwalbe Marathon Plus or Continental Touring Plus which should be strong enough even for cities with glass shards everywhere. And they behave much better than airless tires/tubes. – Michael Nov 12 '15 at 7:00
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    What kind of flats are you getting? Short of using a solid tube, no tube is going to help if you're getting pinch flats due to inadequate tire pressure. – Batman Nov 12 '15 at 21:43
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    Since nobody's brought it up yet, if you are constantly getting flats: something is wrong. This is not normal, and many people go many thousands of miles in-between punctures. Use an appropriate tire for the type of riding you do (MTB, cross, commuting, etc), an appropriate sized tire for your weight, and keep them properly inflated. – Stephen Touset Nov 12 '15 at 21:53
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    (And don't attempt to patch a tube on the road, except as a last resort. Carry a spare tube.) – Daniel R Hicks Nov 13 '15 at 21:27
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    @ChrisH I'm not convinced by tire liners. I tried them together with puncture-proof Schwalbe tires for a year, but got a couple of punctures because they pinched the tube. Took them out and no more punctures since then. Although I'm normally fairly adapt at bike repairs and despite following all instructions and youtube videos I could find, I don't think I managed to keep them aligned properly, at least not with wide tires (might be easier with thin tires and higher pressure). They probably moved at lower pressure. – Stephan Matthiesen Jan 17 '16 at 18:22
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Yes, they're usually solid rubber and they're very heavy, hard to fit and have a lot more rolling resistance than you're used to. Companies like "airless tyres" make them, and I suggest trying to fit them yourself before taking them to a bike shop and paying whatever they ask to have them fit the solid tubes.

You can also get puncture resistant tubes that have thicker walls than normal tubes, and while they are heavier than normal tubes they're nothing like solid tubes. They also don't work very well. You're better off with puncture resistant tyres.

Finally, you can get sealants that you pump into the tube that will leak a little then seal, like Slime. Tubeless tyres use a similar sealant, but swapping to tubeless is a major change and there are many sites describing that process

  • I remember seeing a company sometime back that was making airless systems with varying types of foam to simulate different tire pressures. The idea was that they were still heavier, but you could choose whether your solid tyre felt like it had 150psi or 35psi in it. – Deleted User Nov 12 '15 at 17:12
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Assuming that basics are in order and that you are using properly sized tires and inflating them to proper pressure, typical route to get more puncture resiliency is to use different tires with better puncture protection, not different tubes. It reduced my puncture frequency dramatically, I expect it would also help you.

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They are also solid one-piece tires made by Tannus (http://www.tannus.com/#tires) and AmeriTyre ( http://www.amerityre.com/our-flat-free-products/bicycle-tires) that will replace the whole tire and inner tube. One thing to consider with these kinda of tires is that the depth of the rim must be meassured properly otherwise the tires will roll-off the rim if it's too loose. They also have a higher rolling resistance and will take some getting used a "smushy" feeling while riding.

Acme Tires (http://www.acmebikeparts.com/) offer flat-free tires and wheel-sets packages if you don't want to do it yourself or take it to an LBS. These are on the expensive side.

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