Just wondering if the headsets used in the CAAD12 frames include replaceable bearing cups, or if the cups are integrated into the frame (non-replaceable). I'm also wondering if the headsets are standard, and therefore replaceable with a good aftermarket set? Thanks.
The CAAD 12 uses sealed cartridge bearings which are replaceable and not proprietary.
You shouldn't need many special tools to service the headset bearings, especially if they are new - you should be able to tap them out and remove the necessary parts with a screwdriver or wedge.
However, if you are asking the question because you are concerned with home serviceability, you will need a press to do any work on Cannondale's BB30 and BB30a (CAAD12) bottom brackets, which need service more than the headset. There are videos out there of people doing it without a proper press, but it's risky.
Below are some pictures of a sealed headset bearing removal, similar to the CAAD. Also, there is a picture of a makeshift press that you could use for servicing the bottom bracket, if you don't want to spend an exorbitant amount on the park tool BB30 press.
Bottom Bracket Removal Tool and Press:
Its a standard headset (if such a thing exists) I believe its an IS42/28.6 upper and IS47/33? lower.
These are easy to replace even at home. Don't require a bearing press, or any other specialist tools (with the possible exception of a torque wrench). They drop into the cups in the frame and then use the tension from the top cap as pre-load to stop movement.