But is is not as easy as counting links on an open chain.
The links must connect. With inner and outer you must have an equal number of inner and outer. The total must be even.
Let's say one link was removed from that chain. You would have to remove another to make it two links to connect and at two folded back on itself and I am not sure you could even call it a two link chain.
And then there is the connector thing. Connector is typically outer so you want the raw chain to end on inner both ends and you need to add one for the connector. Some times on a new chain the connector is on the chain and some times it is packaged separately. You have pin type one time connectors and reusable connector links.
You can use a 1/2 link connector to get an odd number of links. 1/2 link is used by the wider SS and fixie where you may need a more exact length. I don't think it is used in the narrow chains designed for derailleur.
HL is also a style of chain but it is pretty much limited to SS, fixie, and BMX as far as I know.
Below is a SRAM with a reusable PowerLock on the left. The picture is 14 links. This chain is packaged as 114 links. You will typically cut the chain down and save the spare links for repair. Rather than count I just lay the old chain down next to the new. There is going to be some stretch so you may need to adjust to match up links (or pins/rollers).
It is not like you go the shop and buy a specific size so I have never found a need to know the number of lengths in my chain. 114 and 116 seem to be common packaging. If you have a touring with a long chain stay or tandem then you would have some custom length chains. I suspect they just buy multiple packages and some extra connectors. You can buy spools of raw chain.
Every manufacturer seems to count chain length the same in chain packages.
Here is a safe definition if you want to remove the possible confusion of plate, half, or full.
On the connected (or a configuration that will connect) chain count the number of rollers