I am a road cyclist but not a professional one. I am 21. Do you know a long term training,starting from zero, that can help me to become a good cyclist? I am 1,75 cm tall ,weigh 65 kg.My average bpm is 60 and maximum is 208,spo2 is 97%. I can train indoor 4 times per week. My goal is : 80km (gradient 0,2%) at 35km/h and 10km(gradient 6%) at 20km/H. Thanks
Assuming you mean a fast cyclist, your best long-term plan is to find ways to enjoy or otherwise remain motivated to train year-round so that you can be consistent for the next many years. Starting from 0, assuming you are consistent, you can hope to be a a fast guy in about 3 years and among the elite (in your age/weight class) in 6.
There are many opinions about the actual training content and how it should vary over the course of a year. And mostly, the just that - opinions. There is very little good scientific research on long term training plans, because controlled double-blind studies would take a really long time, have difficulty recruiting participants, and it would be difficult to gain funding because there is no industry interest, not to mention it would be really difficult to design a blind study involving hard physical training.
Still, unscientific as it is, you should consider picking up a good book on the subject, as they tent to model the way professional riders train per tradition, and which seems to be working for them. Two of the more popular ones are "The Cyclists Training Bible" and "Training and Racing with a Power Meter". There are also good free resources online. In short, the books will tell you to do the kind of riding you want to be good/fast at, with some variations. Simply riding your bike a lot will probably do wonders for you as well.
If you want more specific advice, post more details about your goals. Do you want to win the sprints, be fastest up the hills, be the breakaway hero or win a 24h race?
I'm taking a different view to @Morten 's answer.
A good cyclist is one who survives every trip, by successfully avoiding all the hazards while not being a hazard to other fellow road-users.
Obeying red lights and stop signs (don't piss off everyone else waiting at the control)
Looking out for road users who haven't seen you (including pedestrians)
Being as visible as possible on your bike (means lights, no dark clothes, reflective stuff)
Staying on your side of the road, and in your lane.
Going slow passed busses - some locations mandate that you either must stop, or must slow to speeds like 20 km/h when passing a bus outside a school.
Basically a good cyclist is a good road user. Learn to do all this and then crank on the power for speed. Otherwise you could be too busy focusing on power and aero, to be a good road user.
I like Morten's answer. It covers a lot of ground. A power meter these days - is the de facto tool to train with. They have dropped a lot in price over recent years - but still expensive - if you are just starting out. And like any tool has to be used in the correct way (training). You can still get away with using a heart rate monitor - and they are useful for longer efforts but for shorter efforts and overall data quality / accuracy - a power meter is an investment. Incidentally, I don't own or train with a power meter.
The most important factor you need to decide is how much time you can dedicate to training on a consistent basis - week to week. Once you know this - you can formulate a training plan to suit. If you are short of time - say 4 -5 hours a week - then your plan will probably bias towards intervals. If you have 8 - 9 hours a week - then your plan can shift towards longer rides to build an endurance base with less bias on intervals. But whatever, consistency would be the key.
Also set realistic goals. 80km on a 0.2% gradient at 35km/h - does this look realistic? It's a theoretical 4.2W/kg over 2hrs!! http://bikecalculator.com/