There is a plethora of alloy and carbon bikes which contradict a lot of the above.
Certainly with early alloy framed bikes a lot of what has been written above was true - fat tubes, straight gauge, non-profiled. This is where alloy got its harsh ride reputation from. And cheap alloy frames probably still bear this unfortunate hallmark and reputation.
If you look at the other end of the spectrum with the likes of Canyon's Ultimate SLX AL or Cannondale's CAAD12 - you will see careful design can produce a frame which is both compliant and light. The Canyon frame weighs in from 1kg - lighter than a lot of carbon frames. It has a stiff bottom bracket and the over-sized head tube ensures handling is tight. The stays are pencil thin for compliance - and I can confirm it rides great. I would have no hesitation riding it on distance rides.
On the other hand - if you look at a Cervelo S5 aero bike - that has one of the firmest rides I have ever experienced. Harsher than an old Scott Foil. And these bikes are carbon. Supposedly "Soft, You can feel the Flexing".
Then you look at the Genesis Volare in Reynolds 953 steel. You'd instantly think sublime ride - but the frame had to be revised because it was too harsh. And this coming from feedback from the race team.
My point being - material choice alone - does not dictate handling of a bike.