From a purely physical standpoint, the only way you will lose balance or fall from the situation described, is by overreacting to the car passing, and causing the fall yourself.
If there are large trucks at high speeds, there is a very small possibility that you could be in just the wrong place, and the small movement of the front wheel caused by the truck's turbulence could push you into a crack, or something and cause a fall. However, in 20 years of riding, I've never even heard of that happening to anyone.
In some ways, yes, this is a matter of you being confident in your skill on the bike. That confidence comes with time, and I think that as you continue to ride, and continue to feel the effect of the car's wake, and continue to remain upright and in control, you will gain that confidence.
The only thing I see as dangerous to you in this situation is your fear. If you allow that (reasonable) fear to case you to overreact, flinch, wince, or what have you, then you could lose control of the bike and crash.
If you feel that you are afraid of this situation to that level, then consider picking a more relaxing route to ride.
It will be more comfortable, less dangerous because you will be less afraid, and you will simply enjoy riding more.
Please don't take offense that I am discussing these fears openly. It is not intended to be in any way. Everyone has them, and the best way to deal with them is to get them in the open where you can think through them rationally. Mostly, this lessens the power of fear.
As Neil said, anticipation of the movements of cars and other objects around you is your best defense against both excessive turbulence, and the possibility of overreacting to it.