It is recommended to adjust saddle height using a formula. I made calculation and adjusted the saddle position to a higher point than my usual riding position. But now pressure on my palm increased significantly in spite of comfort in riding. Should I use some hand gloves or put some good type of handlebar cover? What are the recommendations for saddle height and palm pressure adjustment?
- Rather than setting your seat height according to a formula, I recommend setting it through experimentation. The rule of thumb is that you should set your seat height so that when one leg is fully extended at the bottom of the pedal stroke, that knee should be almost but not quite straight. You should be able to pedal comfortably without rocking your hips in this position. Note that this height can change based on how much you ride, the fore/aft position of the seat on the seatpost, your age, etc. This is just a starting point--you need to repeatedly fine-tune your seat height to find what works for you.
- Raising your seat without making any other changes is naturally going to rotate your torso forward so that you carry more weight on your hands, as you've discovered. You may simply get accustomed to this in time. You could also raise your handlebars to rotate your position back. Lots of cyclists (myself included) do wear padded gloves, and it's not a bad idea to try them, but these are more to smooth out shocks transmitted through the handlebars than to redistribute your weight. Either adapting to your position or correcting it is more important.
I would not regard that site's seat height calculator as a good guide. It seems very simplistic, and there is no indication of what method it is based on.
The best saddle height for any given rider really cannot be determined through a couple of measurements. Most methods involve the rider sitting on the bike, looking at how far the legs extend when pedalling, and making adjustments. Then making further adjustments based on how they feel while riding.
One of my favorite guides to saddle height is this video from GCN. Googling can yield other guides and how-tos.
Once you are sure your saddle height is good you can address hand pain. You may be in a too aggressive position (body leaning more forward) that is putting more weight on your hands than you want.
The body's core strength serves to take weight off of the hands, so you may find you get used to the new position and the problem goes away. If not, consider raising and moving back your handlebars to achieve a slightly more upright riding position.
How long have you been riding in the new position? It can also be that your back muscles need to get used to the new position and therefore you are temporarily overloading your hands.
You can also try to adjust the handlebar height or using gloves.
That calculator doesn't ask any questions about the geometry of your bike, your foot length, cleat position (or normal foot position if flat pedals) or shoe design.
If you have large feet, you may need to move your saddle back. Having your saddle too far forwards moves your body further over your hands, increasing the fraction of your body weight your arms and hands have to support.
If you don't already have another similar bike where you don't experience this discomfort, I strongly recommend you ask your local bike shop about a bike-fit session.