I thought I've seen something like this before... so I googled a bit and found traces of this design, apparently deceased.
While it looks clever, I have some doubts that it will work efficiently for any real rain. As soon as the brush is "saturated" with water, incoming drops will cause some of already collected water to detach and continue its way up.
It will definitely not work for snow, the reason being the snow is hard not liquid. I had my rear wheel fully blocked many times when a build-up of snow formed in the chainstay-seattube-bottom bracket area of my bikes. Even a rear fender placed too low once caused such snow accumulation resulting in inability to rotate the rear wheel. Placing another hinder somewhere can only shift the position of such build-up or even provoke it.
Maybe some oil on tires might help to repel snow sticking to the tire, but obviously the same oil will hurt your braking capabilities to the extent that it will be safer to leave the bike home. However, you may try to use some bike polish on the frame and on the drivetrain parts. It is told to help with preventing mud sticking to the frame; however, I used it and did not notice any measurable effects.
Solutions that I consider to work are:
- having another bicycle with a different braking system, preferably internal (say, drum) or even disk will work better;
- wider clearance between tires and the frame — if you can move your rear wheel in the dropouts further back;
- gnarlier tires, possibly spiked if you need to deal with plenty of ice; if not, just go with regular non-completely slick tires.
- just dealing with the fact that riding in the winter has to be done more carefully and slowly;
- just dealing with the fact that you will not be able to pass on your bike to your descendants; or maybe you actually will — bikes are survival tools and may last surprisingly long.