You are confusing two different measurements. The bolt circle diameter (BCD) is the diameter of the circle the bolts that hold the chainrings lie on, not the length of the axle.
In general a crank needs to be matched to the type of bottom bracket you have. There are many bottom bracket types and selecting a compatible crank is confusing.
First step is to compare your new crank to the old. If the axle is shorter then the new crank is a mismatch.
If the axle length is the same then there may be a spacer that needs to be removed.
If you need to get a different crank you’ll need to figure out what type of bottom bracket you actually have - one for threaded shells or one of the press fit types. Adding a picture to your question will enable someone here to help. Also add the exact model of the new crank (and the old one if you know it).
I checked the axle length on an older 105 crank I have lying about, and the shell with of the bike it came out of. The axle measurement as shown in your pic was indeed 110mm (I think it's a co-incidence that it's the same length as the BCD, apologies for to misunderstanding and miscorrecting you). My BB shell is 68mm - the common standard for road bikes. So you have a mismatched shell width and crank. This answer may help explain what's going on here. Incidentally, if you have a 'road' Hollowtech II BB for 68mm shells the inner sleeve will not be bridging the bearings which is a bad situation.
I’m suspicious of the B.B. shell width given in the pic. Cube Attain is a road bike and according to the Cube website all the models have road cranks. Did you get a ‘mountain’ style BB? Those come with spacers and fit both 68 and 73mm shells. If so and you installed it with spacers the BB would be too wide.