As mentioned, Campagnolo (and SRAM) doesn't have a public-facing groupset model number system, unlike Shimano. Thus, differentiation between different iterations (given the number of speeds) is more complex and requires detailed knowledge. If you are selling something, just provide as much information as you can. Some forums (e.g. the Paceline forum) may have Campagolo aficionados, and you can ask for advice there. Campy never had a strong OEM presence, and few people use it, so you will have to search for bike shops with specific expertise. For basic service like adjusting derailleurs, the principles are the same even if the screws are in a different order, so any shop can be OK.
Campy has internal component reference numbers that a bike store ordering components should be able to access, but these aren't widely known. I believe they aren't as immediately informative like Shimano's model numbers (e.g. FC-R8000 means an R8000 crankset).
Since the 10-speed systems, Shimano has had two iterations at each speed (e.g. Shimano Dura Ace 7800 and 7900 were both 10s, then 9000 and 9100 were 11s). The second iteration (e.g. 7900 and 9100) is an update to the first iteration. Occasionally, there are some minor changes for reliability in the first iteration (e.g. there's a distinction (e.g. the 9001 shifters were a small update to the 9000 levers; I believe the cable routing was improved to reduce cable breakage). Campagnolo follows a similar pattern. This answer won't focus on 9s or earlier groups, as I have limited knowledge (this is before I started cycling).
10 speed groups
The first 10s version gave Record (the top group then) carbon fiber shift levers and a rear derailleur parallelogram. The rest of the groups were all aluminum.
The second set of iterations at 10s started in the mid 2000s. This set was fairly complex. It added more carbon bits to Record (spring carrier, RD pulley cage, FD cage), and it gave Chorus some carbon bits (lever blades). It also introduced the quick shift (QS) front derailleurs and, for the lower groups, the Escape shift mechanism (the predecessor to the Powershift. There's some discussion at this Roadbikereview forum thread. Later, they also trickled down carbon further; for example, groups as low as Centaur got carbon lever blades and a carbon crank option. I can't remember exactly when, but at some point, the levers started to be referred to as Ultrashift levers; I think the lever body shape changed (and probably the internal components also).
Thus, I think that Quick Shift is the main differentiator for 10s groups. Pre-Quick Shift makes it (I think) 2003 or earlier. Alternatively, material may provide some clues. Saying "Chorus 10s with alloy lever blades" would date it in the early 2000s or late 1990s, not the mid 2000s. I think Ultrashift may not exist for this set of components, or that it might apply to lower-end 10s groups via trickle down when the top groups were on 11s.
11 speed groups
After that, Campagnolo introduced 11s starting in about 2009. For 11s groups, the second iteration happened about 2015. Pre- and post-2015 shifting components are not officially compatible, as discussed somewhat in this thread on the Paceline forum. Thus, people refer to pre- and post-2015 components for Chorus, Record, and Super Record (e.g. you should say "post-2015 Chorus" or "pre-2015 Record). For cranksets, Campy went to 4-arm cranks in 2015. Shimano did this as well. Fans of both groups complained about the aesthetics.
Campagnolo Athena was an 11s group (with an electronic shifting option) introduced around 2010. It was then discontinued and replace with Potenza in 2016, and it replaced Athena. So, for modern groups, just saying "Athena" or "Potenza" is enough, although Athena is also a historical name. Campagnolo Daytona was offered at the Centaur level (around Shimano 105) in both 9s and 10s versions. Due to trademark disputes, it was renamed Centaur. I believe Centaur was also offered as 9s and 10s. You should treat Daytona as exactly equal to that era of Centaur but for the name.
For interest, Velotech in the UK is a Campag (the UK nickname) service center, and it has a detailed FAQ last updated in 2021. Vecchio's in Boulder, CO and Branford Bike in Seattle, WA may be considered unofficial US Campy service centers. You may also know some local shops that have experience with Campagnolo. There are at least two in my city, but this will vary by city. The level of detail you can get can be impressive, as with this post (by user gfk_velo, who is actually Velotech) that explains that there have actually been self-extracting and non-self extracting PowerTorque cranks, and Potenza has had both self-extracting PowerTorque and UltraTorque bottom brackets. I bet most readers didn't know that. The problem can be sifting the signal from the noise on forums.
EPS (electronic shifting)
Fortunately, this is easier. However, the EPS lineup has been offered in some but not all groupset levels. v1, v2, and v3 all are 11s. v4 and v5 are 12s. It is better to say the version number and groupset name.
v1 was introduced in 2011 at the Super Record, Record, and Athena levels. (They skipped Chorus.)
v2 was introduced in 2014 at the Super Record, Record, and Chorus levels, but Athena EPS was discontinued.
v3 was introduced in 2016 for Super Record and Record only.
v4 was introduced in 2019, but only for Super Record.
v5 was introduced in 2023. At the time of writing, they only released a Super Record version, and in their media release, they implied that a lower end electronic groupset was in development. This is typically called Super Record Wireless (SRW), and I don't know if v5 will catch on as a moniker.
Of interest, Athena had an EPS group, but the entire groupset was discontinued, and Campagnolo then limited EPS to Super Record.
For nostalgia, the photo below is the very first generation of 10s Record shifters. It has "Carbon BB system" printed on the lever body by the point of the hood. That's a reference to the square taper BB having a carbon shell to save weight (Chorus never got this feature at any time).
And below is the mid-2000s version of the Record levers, which got the carbon spring carrier in the lever (plus carbon RD pulley cage and carbon FD cage).