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My rear derailleur didn't have limit screws properly adjusted so when I shifted to the biggest chainring the chain jumped in between the cassette and spokes.

I managed to get it out but then noticed that the hub wasn't coasting anymore - when I push the bike the pedals are also spinning (just like fixie).

I removed the cassette to check what's wrong and saw that the hub was damaged and now it's rubbing against that moving part where I mount the cassette (don't know how it's called). Is there a way to remove that moving part and smoothen damaged side of the hub? Or I need the new wheel?

Here's the pic of the damage so it's a bit more clear what I'm talking about:

broken wheel

EDIT: As Argenti Apparatus advised I brought the wheel to the bike shop. They assessed it and fixed it - filed the side of the hub so freehub can spin again and replaced 7 spokes. My wheel wasn't super expensive (Shimano RX31 I think) but repair price was still much cheaper than buying the new wheel. Also thanks to everyone for your input and teaching me about the freehub!

fixed wheel

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    Good work, nice update. And now you have a custom two-tone colour scheme! – Swifty Oct 27 '18 at 17:03
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That's a bit of a mess. Looks like the chain dinged up the hub, freehub body (that the cassette mounts on) and the spokes.

The freehub body is removable, and you could possibly use a fine file to remove any metal burrs that are keeping the freehub from rotating.

What is far more worrying is the state of the spokes. All the drive side spokes are gouged and at least one is bent. I'd have a bike repair shop look at it to assess the extent of the damage. Best case you can replace a few spokes, worst case all the drive side spokes need replacing, or if the hub is not salvageable you are looking at a new wheel.

Have the bike repair shop adjust your derailleur while you are there.

  • Thank you! I'll bring the wheel to the bike shop tomorrow. I hope it's still salvageable! – Andrew Oct 26 '18 at 4:07
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    If those drive side spokes are not replaced they will fatigue and break. Only question is it 10, 100 or 1000km before they go. – mattnz Oct 26 '18 at 6:16
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    If it's not a 'precious' wheel (expensive carbon rim) replacing half the spokes and rebuilding the wheel might easily become more expensive than replacing the wheel. – Carel Oct 26 '18 at 7:46
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All the safety aspects are already covered in this answer already: https://bicycles.stackexchange.com/a/57761/34697

For your latest question, and for further reference:

Is there a way to remove that moving part...

It's called freehub body and yes, those can be removed, not only for servicing but also when you want to switch from Shimano/SRAM to Campagnolo or the other way round.

Simply use the well-known search engine or videos page and query for "service freehub" and you might get a very nice GCN tutorial video on how the freehub works, how to remove it and which tools to use:
How To Service Your Road Bike Freehub

and smoothen damaged side of the hub?

If your hub is steel, you can set it back to shape using a punch and a hammer. If the hub is aluminium, it is likely to chip or break, rendering it useless.

The safest option for you is to relace your wheel (or have it relaced) putting new hub and spokes, as 25% of them is significantly damaged.

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