Can I use some kind of spacers (on the non drive side?) to achieve that?
TLDR: Try it, see if it works.
Maybe, depending on how much clearance your frame and rear brake have. 5 mm really isn't that much. But without redishing the wheel the tire will be about 2.5 mm off center. Given most newer road bikes are built to accept 25 tires and quite likely even 28s, you may have to stick to a 23 trainer tire, and even that might not fit.
If your bike is designed to handle 28s, you can probably get away with it without much trouble.
There's also the possibility that the 130 mm rear wheel interferes with your disk brake somehow. I don't see any way to work around that, should the wheel and disk brake caliper interfere, as any redishing would move the rim and spokes closer to the brake components.
And you'll be lucky if you don't have to tune your rear derailleur at all with such a wheel swap, but you likely won't have to adjust the limit screws. Some tweaks on the barrel adjuster will almost certainly be needed, as what you're proposing to do is should translate to a "normal" wheel swap, and such swaps often do require small adjustment to the barrel adjuster as the hubs on the wheels being swapped are just a bit different.