For 9-speed (or 10-speed, which uses the same actuation and usually works fine in this instance) with native 32t clearance, the options for a Shimano road group model are pretty limited due to how the chronology played out with 32t road cassette being a thing. A lot of the 11-speed road GS cage derailers can clear 32, but they won't work with your shifter. The one you have and Claris RD-2400-GS may be the only nominally road ones that would work as a drop in replacement. RD-2400 is okay, barely.
Another answer is to get any GS or SGS (much more common) mountain 9-speed derailleur, which are compatible because Shimano 9-speed mountain and road rear derailleurs use the same actuation ratio, and all the 9-speed mountain RDs clear a 32. Of these there are a lot of choices; some currently produced ones are RD-M590, RD-M591, RD-M4000, and RD-M772. The XT RD-M772 may be the only one currently produced that comes in mid-cage/GS like you presumably need. That would be a good choice for a bike that's going to get used a lot.
Of note is that it's exceedingly common for rear derailleur hanger alignment as well as cable issues to cause the problems you're talking about, and you really shouldn't go to replacing the derailleur until those are eliminated as possibilities, unless you can tell the RD itself is obviously bent or slopped out, which does happen. And if the RD itself is bent, usually the hanger will be too from whatever incident(s) caused it, which will need addressing for a new RD to work correctly.