Modern tubeless bicycle tires require a sealant to be added to the inside of the tire. If a small leak develops the sealant seeps out, meets air, solidifies and seals the leak. I believe this arrangement has become popular because earlier tubeless standards like UST required heavier tires.
The white foam dots you see is the tubeless tire sealant leaking out of holes in the sidewalls of the tire, and failing to seal them completely it seems.
what's fascinating is the pattern of holes in the sidewall, I've never seen anything like that before. I think commenters on on your question are correct, there's possibility you have damaged the sidewall by riding with excessively low pressure which has folded the sidewalls at an acute angle.
Refreshed sealant may solve the problem - sealant loses effectiveness over time. Replacing sealant or a tire is not difficult and is relatively inexpensive, depending on the the replacement tire you choose.
Have the bike repair shop check the tire for damage, if the tire is obviously damaged or even suspect I'd opt to replace it as the labor cost for replacing the tire with new sealant will be the same as replacing sealant in the existing tire.
While you are at the bike repair shop, have the rear wheel checked for trueness , you may have suffered some impacts with the tire under-inflated. Also, think about getting yourself a pump with a pressure gauge to avoid future problems if you have been under-inflating the tire.