This is an evolving answer and it will be periodically updated. I haven't found information in precisely the format requested, but here goes. Also, I will expand this answer to include aerodynamic drag from helmets and clothes - they aren't on the bicycle, but their contribution to overall aerodynamic drag is meaningful.
Specialized produced a vid based on wind tunnel testing where they started with a rider on a Specialized Tarmac, in somewhat loose kit (I've heard this called club fit in the US context), a standard road helmet (Specialized Prevail), and standard wheels.
The video was dated 2014. I'm not able to date the tester's bike exactly, but in 2014, the Tarmac was one of Specialized's road racing bikes. It was not a round tubed bike, and it may have had some aerodynamic consideration in its design, but it was not marketed as an aero road bike. In any case, the video appears to sequentially add tight, race-fit kit, then an aero road helmet (the first generation Specialized Evade, as contrasted with a time trial helmet), then Roval CL60 carbon wheels (60mm deep, likely contrasted with ~25-30mm aluminum clincher wheels), then changed the frame to the first-generation Specialized Venge frame (their aero road frame). My recollection is that the Prevail helmet was designed with some aerodynamic considerations, so it may have been (designed to be) slightly faster than the average road helmet of its day. Current higher-end road helmets may have received similar consideration.
The test shown below, as well as the second Specialized video linked below, was done with the wind at 0 degrees yaw. This is likely to under-state the magnitude of the gains from aerodynamic wheels and from an aero road frame. As the wind changes yaw, the amount of drag saved is likely to favor the aerodynamic wheels even more than standard depth wheels. One manufacturer that presents drag data for its aerodynamic wheels versus a Mavic Open Pro (a box section rim about 20mm deep, most likely with 28 or 32 spokes) is Flo Cycling. Their graph corresponds to the trend I described, and it is consistent with other manufacturer-reported data I've seen in public. I would expect a similar trend to hold true for bike frames, and the presenters in the video below alluded to this.
Gains are presented in the format of seconds saved over a 40 kilometer solo effort (26 miles). Remember that these changes were made sequentially.
- Changing to race fit kit (from club fit kit): 45 seconds saved
- Adding aero road helmet (from standard road helmet): 42 seconds saved
- Changing to 60mm wheels (from ~30mm wheels): 34 seconds saved
- Changing to aero road frame (from road frame): 59 seconds saved
Another 2014 video tested a 1980s steel road frame versus a then-current Venge with a different rider. That test kept the wheels and all the fit coordinates and rider position the same between bikes, but the bikes were equipped with different components. That test found that the Venge saved 50 seconds over 40km versus the steel bike.
Henec, going to race-fit kit and an aero road helmet are big improvements that should be comparable in magnitude to, and possibly greater than, aerodynamic wheels or an aerodynamic road bike. If you are willing, changing to a skinsuit will save even more time. Objectively, those changes are cheaper than changing wheels and bike. It is worth considering that not all skinsuits have pockets, and they definitely do not appear to be fashionable among amateur riders, and it is worth remembering that aerodynamic road helmets may be more poorly ventilated than traditional road helmets.