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I have a Schwinn Peloton LTD from early 2000 with a 10 speed DuraAce crank. The label on the bottom bracket says BC1.37x24 ROAD.

Can I get the latest Shimano group sets to work with this frame?

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Yes, you should be able to run the current range of groupsets. All the mount points are the same as 20 years ago, except for 11/12 speed freehub body, so you might need to change the rear hub or wheel. Your BB shell is a regular threaded 68mm, should be absolutely no trouble to find suitable BB cups.

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    This is a tangential comment that’s probably irrelevant for most. Ignoring the hydraulic disc versions, the only modern group set the OP can’t install would be internally wired electronic Shimano, Campagnolo, and FSA. I think Campy’s EPS may not have an external wiring kit available, but Di2 does. Naturally, there’s wireless electronic (SRAM AXS). Or the OP could drill holes in the frame. I can’t recommend this, but for an older steel frame with relatively thick tubes, it should be doable. – Weiwen Ng Feb 1 at 16:46
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In light of some recent questions, I'm going to focus this answer solely on bottom brackets.

The OP’s frame has a British threaded bottom bracket(aka BSA standard). These were by far the most common standard on most bikes in the 2000s. Some frames, mainly Italian ones, used the similar Italian threaded standard. The BSA shell is 35mm in diameter. The Italian shell is just 1mm wider.

In 2004, Shimano introduced the Dura Ace 7800 groupset, which had a 24mm steel spindle. This design was known as Hollowtech II. The spindle was considerably larger than the spindles on Shimano's previous Hollowtech cranksets and square tapered bottom bracket spindles. This was based on the Sweet Wings crankset, whose patent had expired. In this crankset, Shimano placed the bottom bracket cups outside the BB shell.

Campagnolo soon adopted a similar design with a 25mm spindle. SRAM also introduced cranks with a 24mm spindle that tapered to 22mm at the non-drive side of the crank, known as the GXP standard. British threaded bottom bracket shells have a 35mm diameter. This can comfortably accommodate a 24-25mm spindle and leave sufficient room for bearings. BSA bottom brackets for these 3 crank types are widely available, both from the 3 groupset manufacturers and often from third party manufacturers as well. There is definitely no issue in equipping a bike with a British BB shell with a Shimano Hollowtech II, SRAM GXP, or Campagnolo Power- or Ultra-Torque crankset. The same is true of Italian threaded shells, but the availability of BBs is lower.

30mm axles might create issues for standard threaded BBs

More recently with the current generation (released in 2019) Force and Red AXS groupsets, SRAM has introduced a 29mm axle called the DUB standard as an option (i.e. it still appears to make GXP cranksets for their current groups). Additionally, numerous third party manufacturers have cranks with 30mm axles. While the 24-25mm axles are made in steel or sometimes titanium, 30mm axles are usually made in aluminum, and are lighter. Off the top of my head, Rotor, Easton, and Praxis are examples of manufacturers that make cranks with 30mm axles.

In general, we want to have the bearings placed as far apart as possible to support the crank axle, and we want the bearings to be as large as possible. With a 30mm axle, the axle takes up quite a bit of space inside the BB, meaning that the bearings have to be smaller.

In addition, this Cyclingtips article states that some cranks with 30mm axles are incompatible with BSA BBs. SRAM does make DUB bottom brackets in BSA format, so the DUB standard appears to be compatible. I have also seen some BSA BBs for cranks with 30mm axles. If you want a crank with a 30mm axle, I would confirm the compatibility with the manufacturer.

I am personally a bit wary of fitting cranks with 29-30mm axles to bikes with British or Italian BB shells. I worry that the bearings might be a bit too small, which might impair durability. However, I also have no personal experience with this combination.

SRAM do continue to offer GXP cranks for their AXS groupsets. Shimano do not appear to have ever offered a 30mm spindle for cranks. Campagnolo offered a 30mm spindle as an option for their 11s groupsets, called the Over Torque crankset. However, their 12s groups (I.e. the current generation, released in 2019) do not seem to have an Over Torque option.

Some extremely niche advice for internally wired electronic groups

I commented on Argenti's answer that the OP's frame is not compatible for internally wired electronic groupsets (Shimano Di2, Campagnolo EPS, FSA WE), unless he chooses to drill the frame. There are some people who have done it, e.g. this guy.

If one chooses to do this (at your own risk, obviously), a 29-30mm spindle should take up too much space in the BB area for you to route the wires through there safely. You would want to either choose a wireless electronic group (SRAM eTap), get an externally wired group (I believe this only applies to Shimano Di2), or avoid cranks with 29-30mm spindles.

It seems that SRAM's current generation power meter cranks may only be available in the DUB standard (29mm spindle). This may be a consideration for some. SRAM do continue to offer GXP spindles as an option on their current AXS and lower level group sets.

  • fitting cranks with 29-30mm axles to bikes with British or Italian BB shells IMO there's an even worse issue with doing that - the bearings have to be outboard of the shell itself. Transient loads on the crankset could wind up putting some significant torque on the bottom bracket shell's threads, and a 20-year-old frame would not have been designed to take such loads. It's probably not a problem on a steel bike, but I'd be worried about long-term fatigue effects if the threads were aluminum. – Andrew Henle 2 days ago
  • @AndrewHenle while I’ve not mounted any 30mm cranks to an English BB, I think your criticism would apply to 24mm spindles also. The big 3 seem to have no issue with that arrangement. The Bb cups do thread quite some distance inside the shell. I think I am not worried about this issue. Albeit my own frame is steel, so no personal experience with an aluminum frame from that era. – Weiwen Ng 1 hour ago
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Yes, you can install a modern road rim brake groupset.

'BC1.37x24 ROAD' Means an ISO/'English' threaded bottom bracket shell, 68mm wide is the road standard width. Shimano external threaded BB cups thread right into that, and all 24mm axle road cranks go right in.

Your existing wheel will have a 10 speed 34.95mm freehub body so you can opt for a 10 speed group (the current Tiagra is 10 speed). If you want an 11 speed group you'll either need a new wheel or hub with a 36.75mm freehub, or some wide range 11 speed cassettes will fit on a 10 speed hub - the large inner sprockets can overhang the inner end of the freehub or spoke flange. If you go for a large range cassette you'll need a long cage derailleur obviously.

Shifters, rim brakes will bolt right on; as will the rear derailleur. You'll need to match the front derailleur to your seat tube diameter or braze-on tab.

  • be careful with Tiagra 10 speed - I understand its subtly different to other 10 speed road groupsets too, and won't work well with anything not tiagra. – Criggie 16 hours ago
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    @Criggie correct 10 speed Tiagra 4700 series uses the cable pull ratio from 11 speed road groups, so you can’t mix and match shifters and derailleurs from other Shimano 10 speed groups. . – Argenti Apparatus 15 hours ago
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Yes the mechanical group sets will work perfectly. I recently built up a Specialized Allez with Campagnolo 11 speed. Very similar to your project and no issues at all...

The key items to note: 1. Bottom bracket of the Peloton will be an English (BSC) thread and 68mm wide. Threaded bottom brackets still are standard on some bikes but you need to be careful when purchasing the group set that you do not get a press fit BB and crankset as the press fit BB has become standard on most carbon frames.

  1. Rear wheel dropout spacing on the Peloton is 130mm, the same as current bikes with caliper (rim) brakes. If you already have wheels from 2000 you MAY be able to replace or modify the freehub body to accept the 11 speed cassette. Cassettes got wider with 11 speed. But interestingly there is a Shimano 11spd cassette (Shimano 105 CS-HG700 11-34) which is designed to fit onto a 10 speed hub. This however will require a wide range rear derailleur designed to handle a 32t or larger cog. If necessary a longer B-screw can be used to get additional clearance between the 34t cog and the derailleur's jockey wheel - this usually is not required with the Shimano road derailleurs spec'd for 32t.

  2. Cable & wire routing. If mechanical (cable operated) derailleurs are used then the frame is setup as is. Road front derailleurs are bottom pull. That is, the cable is routed under the bottom bracket: this is unchanged since before 2000. Routing electric wires is different than cables but one can use zip ties to route cables on older bikes. The greatest potential I've seen in using electric shifters on older bikes has been aesthetic. The new carbon frames have internal routing so wires disappear, but external wires will work just fine.

All other mount points for the various parts are standard between 2000 (ish) frames and modern components. This includes: brake mount points, derailleur hanger, handle bar diameter where levers are attached.

One word of caution: do NOT mix & match the Shimano 11 speed parts with those from prior generations (10 speed and earlier) nor can one mix derailleurs & shifters between road and mountain groups. The cable pull ratios are different so shifting will not work right. Similarly the brakes will not perform optimally as the mechanical advantage (aka pull ratio) will be mismatched between the brake levers and the calipers.

Good luck with your project.

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