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I am trying to buy a cassette for my new incoming carbon wheels so that I just switch them with my current wheeyl whenever I need to race/crit without the need to retune the shifter and derailleur. I was wondering if a Tiagra HG-500 12-28t (10 speed) would be compatible with my current Tiagra CS-4600 (12-28t) 10 speed? For a reason, it is really hard to find CS-4600. Thanks!

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All Shimano and SRAM cassettes up to 10 speed are broadly compatible.

They all use Shimano's Hyperglide II freehub body spline pattern.

Cassettes with the same number of sprockets have the same sprocket spacing, sprocket width and overall width.

So, you can replace a N speed Shimano/SRAM cassette with any other N speed one that has a range compatible with your drivetrain (min and max sprocket size and within total capacity).

At 11 speed Shimano and SRAM road and mountain drivetrains diverge in sprocket spacing, but retain compatibility within those two categories.

The chain length may need to change but a new chain should be used with a new cassette anyway.

FYI you may find you need to adjust your derailleur when swapping wheels, as the two hubs wont quite laterally position the cassettes identically.

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    Chains 'stretch' as they wear (actually the bearing surfaces wear and develop play, which effectively elongates the chain). As a chain elongates it concentrates pressure on the leading sprocket (or chainring) tooth that engages it. That accelerates wear on the sprocket teeth. You can use a new chain with an older cassette, but there is a higher chance it will skip under high pedaling force. If your older cassette is worn, I'd replace it. – Argenti Apparatus Feb 7 '20 at 13:48
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    @abdnChap do you know the reason for road/MTB cassette incompatibility? – Argenti Apparatus Feb 7 '20 at 13:55
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    @abdnChap that’s interesting. Have you a source? All the literature I’ve seen doesn’t mention different cog-cog spacing between road and MTB. – Weiwen Ng Feb 7 '20 at 14:02
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    @abdnChap, I concede you are correct, at least for 11 speed. This page lists sprocket spacing for Shimano, SRAM and Campy systems. – Argenti Apparatus Feb 7 '20 at 14:08
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    But that page does seem to confirm that all Shimano and SRAM 10s cassettes had a cog-cog spacing of 3.95mm. The contention here was about 10s. – Weiwen Ng Feb 7 '20 at 15:26
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Not all 10speed cassetts are compatible with eachother.

There are a few people asking similar question and the answers from other people is that, inthis case, it will work. See questions section here.

Specifically,

Q. Can i use the Tiagra 11-32 to replace my Shimano 105 11-28 (10 speed) cassette?

A. I run a Tiagra 12-30 cassette with my rear derailleur RD-5700 (that's 105 short cage), with no problem at all in 5yrs - so would say that while some will tell you the theory is a 28tooth sprocket is the biggest you can use with a short cage, practice tells me otherwise.

Some issues they were having on the page where people asking if they could use the larger 30-34t cassettes on the same system. But as you're using the same range, it should be fine.

Remember to always fit a new chain when using a new cassette

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    This is more to do with the limits and capabilities of the rear mech, where the cassette's maximum tooth-count cog is a limiting factor. Fair point, but not the main point. – Criggie Feb 7 '20 at 21:58

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