My road bike tyre got punctured couple of days ago and I just noticed that it resulted in a hole in the outer wall of my tyre. How can I close this hole? I rode just 500kms on this tyre so I am not sure if I need to replace it with a new one
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Install the tire and pump up to pressure and see if there is any bulging which would indicate the chords are damaged. Damaged tires belong in the trash.
If there is no sign of chord damage and you decide to use the tire, I would strongly suggest 2 or 3 layers of duct tape or similar as a patch on the inside. Not only will this provide additional strength but it will reduce the chance of gravel or debris getting into the hole.
FWIW, for small holes such as this I will use Shoe Goo to fill the hole and prevent debris from getting to the tube. First I inflate the tire to a pressure above where I ride and then work some Shoe Goo into the hole. After the Goo cures overnight and the tire pressure is reduced to normal, the tire will squeeze the hardened Goo and hold it better. If unfamiliar with Shoe Goo, it was originally marketed for repairing worn tennis shoes. It goes on like silicon caulk, remains flexible but is much harder than caulk.
Last tip: The repaired tire is always installed on the back wheel and I position the repair at the valve stem so I can easily check for any signs of bulging every time I inflate the tire.
I'd say you could keep using it as long as the hole isn't all the way through. Make sure the piece of glass or whatever caused the cut is removed from the tire so it doesn't cause a flat next time you ride the bike.
I've worn out many tires and at the end of their life (when they're worn so far I have to replace them) they usually have cuts that look like the one you show in the picture all over them (on the tires' running surface/thread that is). As long as you remove the glass etc after each puncture you should be fine. Cuts in the sidewall (which tends to be weaker than the tires' running surface) might cause more of a problem though, such as the cut developing into a larger cut (tire tearing) .