There are Presta to Schrader converters. You should buy one with O-ring (the ones without O-ring are crappy: they leak air). they allow Schrader pumps to be used on Presta tubes.
As for the powered car tire inflator, maybe it will work, maybe not. The key is maximum pressure. The volume in road bike tires is low, so not much inflation heat will be created by a pump that fully fills a road bike tube. Therefore the powered car tire inflator won't overheat.
However, not all car tire inflators are intended for high pressure tires. If the inflator is intended for passenger cars only, it may be limited to 4-5 bar as no passenger car has higher pressures (usually the spare donut tire is the only in a car that may require close to 5 bar). If the inflator is a general purpose tool, intended for all kinds of vehicles, then yes, there are motor vehicle tires that should be pumped to over 100psi / 7bar. So a general purpose tool, intended for all kinds of motor vehicles, is probably able to pump road bike tires.
I won't recommend such an inflator, however. Car tires are pumped with powered inflators because there's a lot of volume and it's a lot of work to get them to even the 2-3 bar pressure they usually have. However, bike tires are so low volume that getting them to 7-8 bar is no effort at all with a proper floor pump.
So as has been already stated, you should buy a floor pump (also called track pump). The best have both Schrader and Presta valve fittings. If you also have a car, you might want to buy the powered inflator in addition to the floor pump. A good bike tool is not a good car tool and vice versa.
For road bikes, buy widest tire you can fit. Maybe it's 32mm, if so you should use one. 85-90psi is plenty for 32mm. Maybe it's 28mm, if so you should use one. 100psi is plenty for 28mm. Unfortunately, there are still road bikes that take no more than 23mm tires. If so you're screwed. 23mm tires do absolutely require 120psi, anything below will pinch flat instantly unless you are a featherweight rider.