The simple table you are looking for isn't really possible to compile. There are differences in what Shimano, SRAM and Campagnolo do, and road and MTB drivetrains have increasingly diverged. You can see that on this page that has a table of sprocket pitches (distance between sprocket centers) and the Sheldon Brown table here. 12 speed systems have diverged even more.
There is not really a one-to-one relationship between hub width and number of speeds. Older 5 and six speed hubs were either 120 or 126mm wide. Modern road bikes went to 130mm (on rim brake bikes) to accommodate up to 11 speeds, wider widths are driven by disc brakes and rear through-axles, not increasing numbers of sprockets in the cassette. Same kind of deal for mountain bikes, but with wider widths.
This page gives chain widths for 7 through 12 speeds, it's generally correct although I'm a bit skeptical about the actual chain width figures. I'm fairly sure there are differences between road and mountain chains.