Bikes are quite specialized (pun not intended) for years and the spectrum is getting wider and wider.
As in any other field, define your needs/wishes first, think them thoroughly and then pick a proper tool. many will stone me, but there is really rough and not complete spectrum of bikes I can name now. Sorted from the smoother to rougher terrain:
- Arena special: A bike optimized for high speed races in closed environment running on smooth floor.
- "road bike": A bike optimized for long and fast rides on asphalt. Usually in peloton.
- Triathlon: A bike optimized for long and fast rides on asphalt without any aid (drafting means disqualification)
- City bike: A bike optimized for slow pace rides within (paved) city
- "cross": Bikes for rides on asphalt and sand/dust paths.
- Cyclocross: Bikes optimized for races in shallow mud and tarmac.
- BMX: Bikes optimized for short and fast races on bumpy tracks.
- MTB: Bikes optimized for riding on sand/dust/mud paths with little to no tarmac.
- Downhill: Bikes optimized for fast rides down the hill across rock, branches, sand/dust...
- Trial: Bikes optimized for stunts in "free" terrain.
Every single group has not only frames customized for the group, all the parts are optimized as well. Including tyres.
You have picked a bike optimized for rough terrain and used it on tarmac. MTBs need robust tyres to withstand possible punctures from rocks, branches which is useless on tarmac. They need soft and deep threads to follow the rough surface and deal with mud, which is useless on tarmac. MTBs are also of more robust construction to withstand jumps and other excessive loads caused by the rough ride, again, it is useless on tarmac. The gear ratios are shifted to lighter gears so one can climb in rough terrain easier (the rolling resistance of wet mud is huge compared to any dry and hard surface), which is useless on tarmac.
Soft tyres wear on tarmac so extensively because it is like a sandpaper for them. As bigger tyres are inflated to lower pressures (compare 2 bar for MTB and 8 bar for a road bike), they deform more so they slide all the time. In sand/mud the terrain let the rubber go through the soft material, tarmac forces the rubber to slide on its hard and coarse surface.
If you change the tyres only, they won't last long.
If you change from tarmac to dust/mud they can last few seasons.
If you change for smoother and harder compound, they will last longer.
If you want to stick with roads, I would recommend looking for more road-dedicated bike. If you want to stick with the bike, I would recommend changing where you ride.
By the way, MTBs are really tough bikes.