Here's a similar topic: Italian bottom brackets and modern cranksets - a compatibility guide?
The documentation for the crankset will indicate what "chainline" it is designed for. The chainline is basically the side-to-side offset distance of the chain from the centerline of the bike/wheels. If you have a triple front crankset, it will probably specify a 50mm chainline. The crankset docs should also indicate what BB specs you need, depending on the frame measurements. If you have a standard English threaded BB shell, it will probably be either 68mm or 73mm wide. If your crankset requires for example a square taper BB with 113mm spindle length, that's what you would get. Square taper BBs normally come with a thin spacer for use on 68mm width frame shells to adjust the positioning to match a 73mm shell w/o spacer, so such BBs are normally sold as 68/73mm BBs.
Essentially, spacing for the front and back is handled independently, trying of course to set each to the same chainline value.
Since you have an Italian threaded frame, I would think you would just use an Italian threaded BB with the spindle length indicated by the crankset (looks like 70mm is a common BB shell width for Italian threading, but measure your frame to make sure). More details, such as brand and model numbers of your crankset and frame, would be helpful to provide a better answer.