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I have two brake systems I think on my bike. On the front I have a threaded stud and on the back a road brake.

Here is the front and the back (click for large version):

enter image description here enter image description here

As you can see on the back the highlighted part is way smaller:

enter image description here

So am I right to say that on the front I have a threaded stud and on the back a road brake?

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    Those are both v-brakes, also called “linear pull”. They use pads with threaded studs. The washer thickness is adjustable to get best fit – Andrew Apr 11 at 19:42
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    This is a good, well constructed question - it clearly shows the point, with supporting photos so that an answer can be given immediately. +1 – Criggie Apr 12 at 6:45
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So am I right to say that on the front I have a threaded stud and on the back a road brake?

No
As Andrew says, you have v-brakes on the front and the rear.

Here's a picture from the front
enter image description here

V-brake pads come with a threaded stud and washers to allow you to adjust the angle of the pad and the distance from the arm to the pad.

The "ball and socket" design allows the angle of the pad to be adjusted.
The different thickness of the silver washers allows for two different possible distances between the brake arm and the pad. enter image description here

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    The washer assembly is rather clever. It forms a ball and socket joint, but by swapping the parts around you can move the centre of the joint and the whole pad. Remembering that makes it easier to put the rounded washers in the right order – Chris H Apr 11 at 20:25
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    @Criggie I've got the Kool-stop ones illustrated in your old answer, so the diagram is familiar. You can get away with other arrangements but the useful range of angles is reduced and the angle changes more when you fully tighten the screw, as the rotation is more coupled to the translation when it's less of a ball. Not a major issue on decent brakes but I've tweaked cheap nasty stamped V-brakes that had been set up wrong, and they're a pain – Chris H Apr 12 at 6:01
  • Follow-up: does your answer address the OP's statement, between his two photos, that "the highlighted part" (appears to be part of the ball-and-socket washer stack) is smaller on the rear brake? From my knowledge of V-brakes that sound plausible (if one set of brakes was replaced with a different model, or had its washer stack reordered as described by Chris H) but unlikely. – SSilk Apr 12 at 20:10
  • @SSilk In the part of my answer that says "V-brake pads come with a threaded stud and washers to allow you to adjust the angle of the pad and the distance from the arm to the pad" I had intended to address the shorter distance between the arm and the pad on the rear. I'll add some words to make it clearer. – David D Apr 12 at 20:14

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