I would suspect that your rim tape isn't up to the job of spanning those nipple holes against the pressure of your tubes. Tubeless's big selling point is lower pressure, but your tube is double that pressure.
Additionally, those holes do look quite large - visually they are almost out to the ledges. It may be worth searching the web to see if this brand/model of rim is known for puncturing here. It might be a model that uses plugs over the nipple holes, but they haven't been fitted.
After you peel off the old tape, I'd suggest deburring the holes with a fine needle file or deburring tool or similar, for peace of mind if nothing more. It doesn't take much effort.
My personal preference would be for the rim tape that comes as a loop, not in a roll. Most of the major tube manufacturers make rim tape, and it should be sized for your rim diameter and width. This stuff is stretched over the rim and will shrink back down to a tight fit, so it can't slide around the rim. You can stack rim tape to a point as well, as long as it doesn't interfere with the tyre bead.
Example (not a product rec):