System: Shimano Claris 2000, 1x8 speed.
The answer is maybe. Mostly depending on if you will have enough clearance on your chainstay. According to this chart, a 44 tooth chainring would have a diameter of 184.6mm, while a 50 tooth chainring would have a diameter of 208.8mm, that's an extra 12.1 mm (24.2mm ÷ 2), or just under a half inch of clearance over what you would have already.
If you don't have enough clearance, you could get a bottom bracket with a slightly longer axle. Although you shouldn't push it too far as you will have problems with the chainline if your bottom bracket axle is too long.
See the image below to see how a larger chainstay could have problems with chainstay clearance. Also, as mentioned in the comments, you will need a longer chain.
According to this answer. You should keep about 4mm as minimum clearance between the chainstay and the chainring.