I see the rotor hitting the caliper near the mounting area. The caliper has been moved all the way over on its slots, but the pictures don't make it clear why.
Without other information, the first thing to try is loosen the mounting bolts, reset the pistons, and re-adjust the caliper mounting with the rotor centered between the pistons in their fully reset state. Then actuate the brake a few times and make whatever small correction is needed to dial the centering in. That's how it works when things go right and there's no positioning issue weirdness happening.
If the caliper was moved over this far because it was the only way to get the inboard pad to clear the rotor, that will make the outboard piston live its life fully extended and the inboard one almost not extended at all. Having so much asymmetry tends to make the pads wear unevenly and can cause other issues with the piston function down the line, in addition to making the brake frustrating to adjust. Luckily, rotor shims are able to solve that problem. In an extreme case you can also just use M5 washers when you actually need that much thickness, but it's important they're all the same.
Ive had exactly the same issue with Deore callipers. You can get it to not strike by shifting the calliper a tiny amount but at the cost of worse braking due to the rotor not being centered well. It tends to drift back into the bad position anyway.
As mentioned by Criggie possibly due to a mis-faced rotor tab on the hub.
Try gently shaving 0.25 - 0.5 mm of material off the face of that post with a file. Just enough to stop the post fouling the rotor. Go slow, remember you can't add the material back.
Bike shops also have facing tools that can remove tiny amounts of metal from hubs and bottom brackets and will make all the rotor tabs perfectly square.
I see that you've had to use an IS to Postmount adapter. Given that IS is one of the earlier standards for brake caliper mounts, it might be a matter of tolerances.
A subtle bend in the mounting tabs could put the whole adapter at a very-slight angle, pushing the caliper into the rotor.
So, try and find some way to accurately measure the tab's alignment. I'd try removing the adapter, and bolt some stiff metal strip through the IS hole, and compare that to the line of the brake rotor. It should be parallel to the rotor.