It’s called a tube, they come in different sizes and with different valves.
The 42-622 number tells us that you have 42mm width and 622mm bead seat diameter. (There are two other, less accurate standards, in the American system it would be 28x1.60 inches, in the French it’s 700x40C).
You can pick any tube which fits this size. Usually tubes will support a relatively wide range, for example a 622mm (or 28 inch) tube will often support everything from 28mm width all the way to 48mm width.
There are three different types of valves: Schrader, Presta (also called Sclaverand) and Dunlop. Presta is narrower (allowing for narrower rims) and mostly used on road bikes. Schrader is very common on bikes and used for cars and trucks. Dunlop is common on some city bikes and Dutch bikes. From your photo it seems that you have a Dunlop valve.
Of course you could go for a Dunlop valve again but if your pump supports it I’d go for a Schrader valve. It’s more robust, more widely supported and allows you to pump up your tires at any gas station.