I spent a few years living on a tropical island where there were all sorts of little spines and thorns in the mix of sand, dirt, twigs and wotnot off-road, I had constant problems with punctures if I strayed off the commonly used dusty paths.
I tried tubeless and with inner tubes but both were very prone to flats.
The best solution I came up with was with inner tubes and recycling old tubes by cutting out the valve, slitting down the side and flattening them out and trimming to width to line the inside of the tyres between the inflated inner and tread with 2 layers and a bit of overhang on each side. I had to add a patch or two where the cut inner was too short to make it all the way around, making sure the patched portions weren't on top of each other.
I stuck them in place and together with the sealant/fixative intended for low pressure water pipes and the like, so not glue as such but it held the rubber strips in place pretty well during assembly.
Low-tech but it gave a couple of extra mm of rubber buffer between the outside world and the inflated tube to protect against spines which would have otherwise poked up to a couple of mm into the inflated inner tube.
The water pipe fixative probably wasn't necessary to keep the buffer rubber in place when the arrangement was inflated but I didn't come up with a way to keep it in place during assembly, which was fiddly enough as it was, getting the tyre on with a partly inflated inner without dislodging the lightly stuck rubber between the two was a bit of a faff, but doable.
Thankfully it worked reasonably well, the ride was still fine and I had far fewer punctures so I didn't have to rebuild them often.
If I'd had access to some kevlar strips or something hardier than inner tube rubber but still flexible, that would have been well worth a try. Now I think of it, the sort of tough woven canvas that you get durable luggage straps made from might be an idea.
I did start to make a point of checking the tyres often and removing any spines that I could find, so they wouldn't be driven further and further in but hard to spot unless they're actually dangling out. I wasn't doing this before the rubber buffer upgrade so it might have helped but hard to judge whether I was getting punctures immediately on running over a spine or because spines I picked up were gradually being punched further in.
(I should stress I was a 2 day round trip away from a half decent bike shop, but still one in a fairly backward place, so jerry-rigging was very much the order of the day !)