Such bike lanes are not unheard of in Germany. It is a cheap way to establish a bike path, without the typical material separation by means of a curb or visible marking through a different pavement. (As a side note, apparently it is more dangerous (link in German) to ride on a bike path than in the street together with cars, mostly because bicyclers on a bike path are not in the field of view of right-turning cars.)
I think that a general hostility against these after-the fact attempts, unless they are unsuited because they are too narrow, is unwarranted. There are different groups of bicyclers. There are fast riders, for example regular long-haul commuters or competitive riders who find the small spaces, small turning radii and the proximity to slow, vulnerable and unpredictable pedestrians uncomfortable. They have to slow down or they run the risk of collisions with pedestrians. Slowing down defeats the purpose of their ride though. Fast riders typically feel less unsafe in the (city) street together with cars — they are faster so that car drivers have more time to recognize them, assess the situation and come up with a plan of action for safe passing. It is not uncommon to be as fast as the city traffic so that no passing is necessary. Being faster also means to be less of an obstacle so that drivers caught behind the bike don't become impatient and feel the need to take more risks in order to finally pass.
But then there are many casual, occasional, slow riders who feel very uncomfortable and unsafe in the street. Why, they are! Grandma going half a mile by bike to do her shopping is extremely happy about the painted bike path. She is not a danger to anybody and is slow enough to have time to react when an inattentive pedestrian steps into her path. She is by nature slow enough to be safe there. She would often be tempted to simply use the sidewalk even if no bike path was painted, and in many places that would not be a problem. The paint simply condones that reasonable and pragmatic behavior and organizes the traffic participants.
Bottom line is that no size fits all. Painted bike paths can improve safety and "city usability" for slow riders, but their use should not be mandatory: Every bicycler should be free to ride in the street. This is actually the case in Berlin even with most regular bike paths because they lack the blue sign which would make them mandatory. Many of them are indeed not well suited for fast riders.
Painted bike paths should also be considered a temporary solution. They should ideally be established only as a first step in a master plan laying out general, substantial and integrated improvements for pedestrians, public transport and bicyclers alike.