The jargon for that is a "deep section rim" vs a "shallow section" or sometimes a "box-section rim"
The taller the side's profile, the better the aerodynamics in the forward direction. The ultimate case is a disk wheel where there are no visible spokes and the whole wheel is one solid-sided shape.
Conversely, the side-wind performance drops off as the rim gets taller. For rides in severe cross winds, a low rim is preferred even though it compromises forwards aero savings.
You might consider replacing both wheels, and either selling the old rear or keeping it as a spare. Getting a perfectly matching wheel can be difficult.
You need to check
- Over Locknut Dimension or OLD, probably 100mm on a front wheel but can be a variety of numbers on the rear
- Brake track - a rim brake needs a brake track to work, and a disk-only rim does not have a place for the pads to rub against.
- Rim width - should be suitable for your preferred tyre size.
- Hooked/tubeless tyre - the rim has to be compatible with your tyres. I prefer the same kind of tyre front and rear.
- Valve hole diameter - its very likely a Presta compatible hole in the rim for a road bike.
- Retention - your pictures show a Quick Release skewer, which is fairly standardised. Some wheels have nuts for security, and some bike frames require a through axle which is thicker than a QR. The mount has to match your fork.
You need a new tyre/tube/rim tape as well, unless the thief only stole the wheel and left the rest.
Finally - consider how to prevent this kind of theft in the future. I presume the bike was locked up but the front wheel was only held on by a QR, so not secure. You might need to put a cable lock through the front wheel as well as the rear wheel and frame.