The other answers to the question are perfectly good, but one point maybe should be emphasized given some of the comments.
Automobile engines generate carbon deposits as part of the combustion process, at least as far as I know (which is not very). There, detergents make sense in that they break down those deposits.
In bicycle chains, I think it's important to emphasize one thing that Vladimir touched on. As we ride, the chain picks up contaminants, e.g. airborne dust, dirt kicked up from the road or from the path, etc. Those stick to the lube on your chain. As you go along, some of those contaminants work their way into the chain's rollers. Without contaminants, your chain would still wear slowly due to the metal on metal contact between the pins and rollers (albeit this is mediated by lubricant). The external contaminants act as a grinding paste, which accelerates the wear rate. Many lubes contend that they clean as they lube, but it's hard to see how this could be. They don't contain, as far as we know, substances that break down these contaminants. If you are a hot molten wax aficionado, that process will clean the chain as you lube it, albeit it will disperse any contaminants on the wax into the pot, so the pot gradually gets more contaminated.
With a wet lube, I would recommend wiping the chain down with a rag after every ride for sure. The chain cleaners that Vladimir linked to are relatively convenient for cleaning a chain, and I would highly recommend them. When you run your chain through one, you'll see a bunch of dirty degreaser in the cleaner's reservoir. That dirt was inside your chain. As to the comments about over-lubrication: too much lubricant will attract more dirt and will be counterproductive. You can lube the chain - many guides recommend one drop per roller - then pedal the chain a few revolutions, and then wipe the outside of the chain. This may seem counterproductive, but the only place you really need lubricant is inside the chain. After a few revolutions, wet lubes will have penetrated into the rollers.
You do not need to do a full degrease every 150-200 miles. It would be better if you could do that, but if you can't manage this, aim to do this as often as you can. Don't let the perfect be the enemy of the good. Try for every month or two months. In winter climates with snow, or if you ride in the rain, more often would be preferable.
Neither of the other answers has really explained why your chain is noisy. Unfortunately, I can't account for that either, given your description of your riding conditions. The only thing I can suggest is to get one of those relatively inexpensive chain cleaners and see how much dirt is in there. The first time I ran one of these on a wet lubed chain, it took several cycles before the liquid started looking relatively clean.
If you are willing to remove your chain from the bike, you can forego the chain cleaner in favor of just a used Gatorade or other drink bottle. You'd just fill that with degreaser (diluting it is fine, or even water with some Dawn dish soap), shake the chain, and repeat a few times. You will need a quick link that's reusable; the Wipperman Connex can be reused without limit, whereas other links are rated for single use or for several uses (e.g. YBN rates theirs for 5 uses).