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I'm replacing the rear axle (quick release) for a bicycle with V-brakes.

Can I use an axle from the another bicycle wheel which has disc brakes to replace it?

Or would the two axles differ/be different sizes and not be interchangeable?

P.S. I don't have an original axle which was broken.

Example image:

enter image description here

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    Aside - if you've got to replace a broken part it is frequently helpful to hold onto all the pieces until you've got a good replacement fitted and working. Not always possible I know.
    – Criggie
    Oct 9, 2022 at 16:35

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The term for hubs that can take generic repair axles is a standard axle hub.

The most common standard axle hubs for both MTB/hybrid V- and disc-brake bikes use M10x1 threads and are 146mm long. You might see them called 10x1x146 or similar. 145mm ones that are basically the same thing also exist. Common standard axle disc and rim (V) brake hubs do both use this same axle. A 10x1x146 axle is a common repair part. You'll see some variation in the exact position and length of the smooth center section, which is just noise.

It's possible to find either brake types on a 130mm spaced bike, and the standard axle for those would be 141mm long. It's also possible to find hubs with similar looking 3/8" (aka 9.5mm) x 26tpi QR axles, which are much less common but not oddballs per se. This is a different standard of standard axle hub, and the axles are still interchangeable between disc and rim brake examples.

Many hubs use nonstandard axles of various sorts, which are specific to the hub and not interchangeable.

Generic repair cones and locknuts/spacers often come with repair axles and may or may not be applicable to what you're doing. In a lot of cases they're discarded.

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